Scientific View of God's
Message to Humanity
A Brief Introduction
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Updated on the 23rd Day of Ramadhan,
1441 Hijriya, May 16th, 2020
تأليف حسن علي النجار
أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
refuge with Allah from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name
of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
The word "Islam"
means believing in
Allah (The God)
to the extent of submitting your will to Him. In this sense, the
Messengers of Allah such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Christ
(Nooh, Ibrahim, Moussa, and 'Eissa), peace and blessings of Allah
be upon them, pbbut all, as well as their righteous followers, are
also considered Muslims. It is one religion, revealed to humans on
Earth for thousands of years to guide them in this life and to
reward them in the Hereafter. Mu'hammed, pbbuh, was the last of
these Muslim Prophets and Messengers of Allah.
The Arabic verb root of the word "Islam" is /salima/, meaning kept
safe. The word "Muslim" is one of its derivatives. Prophet
Mu'hammed, pbbuh, said, "The Muslim is the person from whose tongue
and hand Muslims are kept safe." In other words, a Muslim does not
harm people with his/her tongue or hand. Other derivatives of the
verb include /aslama/, which means to submit, from which came the
noun "Muslim," as in verse 2: 112. Moreover, one of its
derivatives is the word noun /silm/, which means peace. Thus,
Islam means “peace,” as mentioned in verse 2: 208.
Finally, Islam is the first level of faith, the attainment of
which is required to gain the mercy and contentment of Allah, in
order for a person to live happily in this life and to enter
Paradise in the hereafter. A higher level is Iman (faith or belief
in the unseen), as we learn from verse 49: 14, and the highest is
I'hsan (righteousness). These three levels of faith are presented
in the second Chapter of this book, as the major components of a
well-known ‘Hadith, on the basis of which this book has been
divided into three parts: an introduction, Islam, and Iman.
Concerning I’hsan, it will be a separate book, insha Allah (God
willing), because it is very much larger in size, containing the
Commands of Allah, as revealed in the Holy Quran.
Sources of the Islamic teachings:
1. The Holy
The Holy Quran (pronounced as two separate syllables Qur - an) is
referred to, by some authors, as “Koran” but this is an inaccurate
translation, as the letter Q is closer to the Arabic sound than
the letter K. The Holy Quran is the first source of the Islamic
teachings. It is the Book of God and His Message to humanity. It
was revealed to Prophet Mu'hammed, pbbuh, in 23 years, starting
from 610 AD, as mentioned in verse 53: 4-5.
The Holy Quran was written by the scribes during the life of the
Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, as he received its verses, by
inspiration through the Angel, Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him.
He would speak and they would write down the revelations. Then,
they would read that which they wrote to him, and he would approve
of it. He would also tell them about the order of Chapters and
where to place the revealed verses.
By the death of the Prophet, pbbuh, some of the Holy Quran
Chapters were in his house and others were in the houses of his
Companions. The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, mAbpwh, collected all
Chapters in one
Book. However, it was the third Caliph, ‘Uthman, mAbpwh, who kept
the Quraysh version of the Holy Quran and burned out all other
versions, which were written in different dialects. The ‘Uthman’s
version of the Holy Quran is the only one which Muslims have
today. It has been guarded and kept safe from any changes or
distortions, by the will of Allah, who stated that promise in
verse 15: 9.
The Holy Quran includes God’s teachings to humanity, including His
commands and His prohibitions, the core of which were also
revealed through His former Messengers. It also includes
clarifications about the disputes between Jews and Christians,
such as over the nature of Jesus and his Message to the
The first Arabic word uttered by the Angel Jibril, peace be to
him, to Prophet Mu'hammed, pbbuh, was the command verb /iqra'/,
which means "Read." This means that Allah, the Knowledgeable,
wants His beloved human creation to be as knowledgeable as they
can be, through reading, writing, and the accumulation of
The Holy Quran in its Arabic original version, and its
translations into other languages, can be found in many libraries
and internet sites, such as
which has 18 different English translations, in addition to
translations to other languages, and an Arabic search function. It
also carries Quran recitations by 26 renowned reciters, so people
can hear verses recited while looking at the written text.
Another important site is
which carries the Quran
Arabic text and its translations to various languages. It also
posts the nine books of Sunna, which explain and authenticate
‘Hadith. In addition, it has a research function, which allows
access to the major interpretations of the Holy Quran by early
Islamic scholars, including Bin Katheer, Al-Qurtubi, and
2. The Sunna
The Sunna represents the second source of Islamic teachings, after
the Holy Quran. It includes sayings
and actions of the Prophet, pbbuh, as well as his approval of
people’s sayings and actions. It also includes his explanation of
the Quran verses in more details. In addition, the Sunna contains
his teachings and his lifestyle, which were examples for Muslims
to follow in various aspects of life.
The Prophet, pbbuh, generally prohibited his Companions from
writing down anything he said, except the Holy Quran, to avoid any
possibility of mixing his sayings with God’s revelations. However,
he allowed it later. Thus, some of the Sunna was recorded
during his lifetime but the majority of it was collected and
recorded a long time after his death. Actually, Muslim scholars
have developed an independent discipline for that purpose, known
as ‘Hadith Science, which specializes in the collection,
recording, scrutiny, authentication, and discussion of the
An example of how the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, explained and
summarized the Holy Quran, to God’s worshippers, is the ‘Hadith
narrated by Companion Abdullah Bin (Son of) ‘Omar, mAbpwt both. He
said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, saying: “
"Islam has been built on five (pillars):
The proclamation that there is no other god than Allah and that
Mu'hammed is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying
charity (Zakat), making the pilgrimage to the House (of Allah in
Makkah), and fasting (during the month of) Ramadhan.”
Thus, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, summarized the five Islamic
ways of worship (‘ibadat), in one ‘Hadith, to make it easy on
people. All of these ways of worship are mentioned in various
chapters of the Holy Quran but the ‘Hadith puts them together,
emphasizing them as the five major and manifest Islamic
obligations. For example, the proclamation of faith was mentioned
in verse 3: 18 and verse 40: 33, prayers and charity (Zakat) in
verse 2: 110, fasting in verse 2: 183, and Haj in verse 3: 97.
Research by Islamic Scholars
Research by Islamic scholars has become the third source of
Islamic teachings. Most of these scholars
are graduates of Islamic universities, who hold the highest
degrees in Islamic studies. Thus, they are experts on the first
two sources. They provide current interpretations of the Holy
Quran, explain to the people the basic principles of their
religion, and give rulings (fatwas) about new innovations, such as
those which may happen in social, economic, financial, and medical
aspects of life. For example, recreational addictive and harmful
drugs were not mentioned in the Holy Quran. So, Islamic scholars
pointed that there is more harm from using them than the sought
benefits. As a result, such drugs should be treated the same way
of treating alcoholic beverages. Allah, praise to Him, commanded
Muslims to avoid them, in verse 5: 190, which was explained by the
Prophet, pbbuh, as prohibition.
Since the last few decades of the 20th Century, a
category of Muslim social and natural scientists has emerged,
tasking itself of demonstrating that the Holy Quran is full of
scientific evidence, which shows that it is the Word of God, and
that nobody else could have produced it. Thus, they have
contributed to deepening the faith and increasing the
understanding of Muslims of their religion, on the basis of
science and reasoning. This is of great importance, particularly
because of the internet age, which has enabled anti-religion
forces to spread their falsehoods easily. In addition, it is a
creative way to call for Allah among non-Muslims, particularly
those who are highly educated, and those who have left their
religions because of the contradiction with reasoning and basic
scientific facts. This book aims at achieving that goal, as
demonstrated in its various chapters, particularly the third and
Out of love and appreciation, whenever the name of Allah (God) is
mentioned, Muslims follow it with the words “praise to Him”
(sub’hanahu wa Ta’ala). Whenever the name of the Prophet Mu'hammed
is mentioned, Muslims follow it with the words “peace and
blessings of Allah be upon him” (pbbuh). This also applies to all Prophets
and Messengers of Allah. The Companions of the Prophet are honored
with the words “May Allah be pleased with them” (mAbpwh). Appreciation for
Muslim scholars is expressed with the words “May Allah reward them
better for their work.”
is the name which God has chosen for himself, as stated in verse
27: 9 of the Holy Quran. He is the Creator of life, Who is
worshipped by His creation as an expression of gratitude for the
blessings of life, care, provision, and promise of everlasting
life in the hereafter for the righteous believers among them.
The word "Allah" means "The God," In addressing Him, a Muslim may
say in Arabic "Ilahi" (my God). However, Muslims usually refer to
God with the definite article, Al, contracted with the noun to
become Allah, thus addressing Him with "Ya Allah" or "O Allah."
The definite article (the) in Arabic takes two forms: "El" and
"Al." Almost all usage of the definite article in the Holy Quran
is in the "Al" form. However, there are three words in the Holy
Quran, which include the "El" form. These are used in reference to
Prophet "El-Yas" (Elijah), his house (family) "El-Elyasin," and
Prophet "El-Yassa' " (Eisha),
with the Hamza under the Alif, the
equivalent to which in English are the vowels "E" and “I” (The
Holy Quran, verse 6: 85 and verse 37: 130).
It is noteworthy that Christian Arabs also refer to God as Allah
in their Bibles, prayers, and daily discourse. A famous Christian
Arab phrase is "Allah Ma’habah," meaning "God is love."
More about Allah can be found in
Chapter 16: "Allah
and His Good Names: Who Is He? What Does He Want for Humans? As He
Described Himself in the Holy Quran."
The Holy Quran mentions that all Messengers of Allah and believers
before Prophet Mu’hammed, pbbuh, were also Muslims, as stated in
Verses 2: 132-133; 3: 19, 52, 67, 84; 7: 126; 12: 101; 27: 42, 91;
28: 53; 51: 36; 72: 14.
وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ
اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا
(الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 132).
And Ibrahim (Abraham) instructed his sons and (so did) Ya’qoob
(Jacob): "O my sons, indeed Allah has chosen for you this
religion. So, do not die except while you are Muslims" (Al-Baqara,
The two verses and the ‘Hadith about the meanings of “Islam” are
بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّـهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ
أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ
(الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 112).
Yes, whoever submits his face in Islam to Allah while being a doer
of good, will have his reward with his Lord. And no fear will
there be concerning them, nor will they grieve (Al-Baqara, 2:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً
وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ
(الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 208).
O, you who have believed: Enter into Islam completely and do not
follow the footsteps of Shaytan (Satan). Indeed, he is to you a
clear enemy (Al-Baqara, 2: 112).
The Arabic text, English translation, and authentication of the
‘Hadith, about the definition of a Muslim, are as follows:
عنْ أبي هُرَيْرَةَ ، رضيَ اللهُ عنهُ ، أنَّ رسولَ اللهِ ، صلى
اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ ، قال: "الْمُسْلِمُ مَنْ سَلِمَ المُسْلِمُونَ
مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ ، وَالْمُؤْمِنُ مَنْ أمِنَهُ النَّاسُ
عَلَى دِمَائِهِم وأمْوَالِهِم"
(صححهُ الألبانيُّ ، في صحيحِ الجامعِ:
، وبناءً على صحيحِ الترمذيِّ:
، وصحيحِ النسائيِّ:
Companion Abu Hurayra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah,
pbbuh, said: “The
Muslim is the person from whose tongue and hand Muslims are kept
The following two main sources have been used for the
authentication of this ‘Hadith and others, throughout the book:
A third source is “Riyadh Al-Sali’heen” by Imam
Al-Nawawi, which was published in Damascus and Beirut, by Dar Ibn
Katheer, in 1428/2007. It is also carried as a photocopy or as a
print, in many websites, such as:
Verse 49: 14 ranks “Iman” as a higher level of faith than “Islam,”
قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَـٰكِن
قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ
(الْحُجُرَاتُ ، 49: 14).
The (Arabian) desert dwellers said, "We have believed (reached
Iman)." Say, "You have not (yet) believed; but say (instead), 'We
have submitted (entered Islam),' for faith has not yet entered
your hearts (Al-‘Hujurat, 49: 14).
Abdullah, the Son of Omar, mAbpwt both, said that one day, the
angel Jibril, peace be to him, came to the Masjid, and asked the
Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, several questions, and said that he was
right in his answers. Among these were three questions about
Islam, Iman, and I’hsan. The Prophet’s answers were as follows:
is to proclaim that there is no other god than Allah and Mu'hammed
is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the
Zakat (charity), to fast (during the month of) Ramadhan,
and to make the pilgrimage to the House (of God) if you are
capable to do so.
is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the
Last Day, and to believe in
God's precise measurement and His just decrees on everything,
including (what may be perceived as) good or bad.
is to worship Allah as if you are seeing him, and while you do not
see Him, He truly sees you.
This ‘Hadith was authenticated as Sa’hi’h (correct) by
Al-Albani, in Sa’hi’h
Al-Jami’: 2627. It was also
recorded by Muslim: 8, Abu Dawood: 4695, Al-Tirmidthi:
2610, Al-Nisa-i: 4990, Ibn Maja: 63, and Ahmed: 367, with little
difference between them. It is also number 17 in the “Forty Qudsi’
‘Hadiths, collected by Imam Nawawi, and number 60 in Riyadh
al-Sali’heen, also by Imam Nawawi.
Taught to him by one intense in strength (Al-Najm, 53: 5
عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَىٰ
(النَّجْمُ ، 53: 5).
Indeed, it is We who sent down the Quran, and indeed, We will be
guarding it (Al-‘Hijr, 15: 9).
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ
(الْحِجْرُ ، 15: 9).
These three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran are known for
their thorough knowledge of Arabic, as well as their comprehensive
knowledge of the Holy Quran, Sunna of the Prophet, pbbuh, and his
companion’s explanations. As a result, they provided more than one
interpretation for a word or a verse. They would often mention
their opinions about which interpretation they found closer to the
meaning. Finally, they would not hesitate to criticize some
mentioned explanations, particularly when these contradict with
the Holy Quran, as its words and verses explain each other.
The complete works of these great Islamic scholars, who
interpreted the Holy Quran in different centuries, are published
on many websites, such as
A brief background about their birth, death, and interpretation
books, can be found at:
Al-Tabari, Mu'hammed Bin Jareer was born in Tabarstan
(Iran today) in 224 Hijriya / 839 Gregorian and died in Baghdad
(Iraq today), in 310 H / 923 G. His famous interpretation of the
Holy Quran is titled in Arabic as “Jami’ Al-Bayan fi Tawil
البيانِ في تأويلِ القرآنِ).
Al-Qurtubi, Abu Abdullah Mu'hammed Bin Ahmed Bin Abi Bakr
was born in Qurtuba (Cordova), Andalusia (Arab-Muslim
Spain), in about 600-610 H and died in South Egypt in 671 H / 1272
G. His famous interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled in Arabic
as “Al-Jami’ Li A’hkam Al-Quran” (الجامع لأحكام القرآن).
Ibn Katheer, Isma'il Bin Omar was born in Busra Ash-Sham
(Syria today), in 701 H / 1301 G and died in Damascus, in 774 H /
1373 G. His famous interpretation of the Holy Quran is titled in
Arabic as “Tafseer Al-Quran Al-Adtheem” (تفسيرُ
Allah, praise to Him, says: "Whatever the Messenger came to you
with, take it; and whatever he prohibited you, abstain from it
(Al-‘Hashr, 59: 7).
وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ
(الْحَشْرُ ، 59: 7).
Al-‘Irbadh Bin Sariya, mAbpwh said that the Messenger of
Allah (pbbuh) said, "You need to follow my Sunna (path) and that
of the guided successors after me” (Authenticated by al-Albani, in
Sa’hi’h Al-Jami’: 2549, and in Takhreej Kitab
Al-Sunna: 54, but without “after me.” It was also produced by Abu
Dawood: 4607, Al-Tirmidthi: 2676, Ibn Maja: 42, Ahmed:
17145, and Ibn ‘Aasim, in Al-Sunna: 54).
عن العرباضِ بنِ ساريةَ ، رضي الله عنه:
بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ المَهْدِيينَ (مِنْ
(صححهُ الألباني ، في صحيحِ الجامعِ:
، وفي تخريجِ كتابِ السُّنةِ:
، بدون "من بعدي."
، وابن ماجه:
، وابنُ عاصمٍ ، في السُّنَّةِ:
In a ‘Hadith narrated by Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri, mAbpwh, who
said, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said (addressing the
"Do not write anything about me except the Quran, and whoever
wrote anything other than the Quran, let him erase it, but narrate
about me (verbally) and there is nothing wrong with that" (Muslim:
3004, and in Al-Zuhd Wal Raqa-iq: 5326. It was also produced by
Shu’ayb Al-Arna-oat, in Takhreej Al-Musnad: 11536, but
replacing “narrate about me” with “narrate about the Children of
عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ
، رضي الله عنه ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ، صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ
وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ: "لا تَكْتُبُوا عَنِّي ، وَمَنْ كَتَبَ عَنِّي
غَيْرَ الْقُرْآنِ فَلْيَمْحُهُ ، وَحَدِّثُوا عَنِّي وَلا حَرَجَ"
، وحدَّثَ بهِ
شُعَيْبٌ الأرناؤوط ، في تخريجِ المسندِ:
، ولكنْ عنْ بني إسرائيلَ ، بدلاً مِنْ "عَنِّي").
Abdullah Bin 'Amr Bin Al-‘Aas, mAbpwt both, said that he
used to write everything he heard from the Messenger of Allah,
pbbuh, in order to be able to memorize it. The Quraysh Companions
told him to stop doing that because the Prophet is a human being
who may speak in normal times and when he is angry. So, I stopped
writing but I told the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, about it. He
pointed his finger to his mouth, and said: “Write down, by Allah,
only the truth comes out of it (Authenticated by al-Albani, based
on Sa’hi’h Abu Dawood: 3646, Ahmed: 6510).
The Umayyad Caliphate started recording ‘Hadith during the reign
of ‘Omar Bin Abdul ‘Aziz, in 99-101 hijriya and that continued
throughout the Abbasside Caliphate rule.
عن عبدِ اللهِ بنِ عمرٍو بنِ العاص ، رَضِيَ اللهُ عنهما ، قال: كنتُ
أكتُبُ كلَّ شيءٍ أسمَعُهُ مِن رسولِ اللهِ ، صلَّى اللهُ عليه
وسلَّمَ ، أُريدُ حِفْظَهُ. فنهَتْني قريشٌ ، وقالوا: أتكتُبُ كلَّ
شيءٍ تسمَعُهُ ورسولُ اللهِ ، صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ ، بشَرٌ
يتكلَّمُ في الغضبِ والرِّضا؟! فأمسَكْتُ عَنِ الكِتابِ. فذكَرْتُ
ذلك لرسولِ اللهِ ، صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ ، فأَوْمأَ بإِصْبَعِهِ
إلى فِيهِ ، فقال: "اكتُبْ؛ فوالذي نفْسي بيدِهِ ، ما يخرُجُ منه
(صححهُ الألباني ، عنْ صحيحِ أبي
وقد تبنت الدولة الأموية تدوين الأحاديث الشريفة ابتداء من عهد
الخليفة عمر بن عبد العزيز ، في
هجرية ، واستمر ذلك أيضاً أثناء حكم العباسيين.
Names of the twenty-three scribes, according to Ibn Katheer:
"الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه، أما بعـد:
فقد اختلف أهل السير في تحديد عدد كتاب الوحي، فمنهم من جعلهم ثلاثة
عشر، ومنهم من جاوز بهم العشرين، وجعلهم ابن كثير ثلاثة وعشرين كما
في البداية والنهاية ، وهذه أسماؤهم كما أوردها ، قال:
أما كتاب الوحي وغيره بين يديه ، صلوات الله وسلامه عليه ، ورضي عنهم
أجمعين ، فمنهم الخلفاء الأربعة أبو بكر وعمر وعثمان وعلي بن أبي
، رضي الله عنهم.
ثم ذكر: أبان بن سعيد بن العاص ، وأبي بن كعب ، وزيد بن ثابت ، ومعاذ
بن جبل ، وأرقم بن أبي الأرقم واسمه عبد مناف ، وثابت بن قيس بن شماس
، وحنظلة بن الربيع ، وخالد بن سعيد بن العاص ، وخالد بن الوليد ،
والزبير بن العوام ، وعبد الله بن سعد بن أبي سرح ، وعامر بن فهيرة ،
وعبد الله بن أرقم ، وعبد الله بن زيد بن عبد ربه ، والعلاء بن
الحضرمي ، ومحمد بن مسلمة بن جريس ، ومعاوية بن أبي سفيان ، والمغيرة
بن شعبة ، رضي الله عنهم أجمعين."
‘Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari: 8 and Muslim: 16. The ‘Hadith
Arabic text is as follows:
عنْ عبدِ اللهِ بنِ عُمَرٍ بنِ الخطابِ ، رضيَ اللهُ عنهما ، قالَ:
سمعتُ رسولَ اللهِ ، صلى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ ، يقولُ: "بُني
الإسلامُ على خمسٍ: شهادةِ أن لا إله إلا الله ، وأن محمداً رسول
الله ، وإقامِ الصلاةِ ، وإيتاءِ الزكاةِ ، وحَجِ البيتِ ، وصومِ
البخاري: 8 ، ومسلمُ: 16).
The Sunna in its Arabic original version and its translations into
other languages can be found in many libraries and internet
websites, such as
which carries the ‘Hadiths, the main Sunna books, and indexes of
the Sunna subjects.
are the verses mentioning the five main Islamic ways of worship
(The Proclamation of Faith was mentioned in verses 3: 18 and 33:
40, Prayers and Zakat in 2: 110, Fasting in 2: 183, and Haj in
شَهِدَ اللَّـهُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ
وَأُولُو الْعِلْمِ قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ
(آلِ عِمْرَانَ ،
مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن
رَّسُولَ اللَّـهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّـهُ
بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا
كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ (الْبَقَرَةُ
وَلِلَّـهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ
إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ (آلِ
Allah witnesses that there is no other god except Him, and (so do)
the angels and those of knowledge. (and that He is) maintaining
(creation) with justice. There is no other god except Him, the
Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-'Imran, 3: 18).
Muhammad is not the father of (any) one of your men, but (he is)
the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And Allah
is, of all things, Knowing (Al-A'hzab, 33: 40).
And establish Prayer and give Zakat (Al-Baqara, 2: 110).
O you who have believed, fasting has been decreed upon, as it was
decreed upon those before you, that you may become righteous
(Al-Baqara, 2: 183).
And (due) to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House,
for whoever is able to find a way to it (Al-'Imran, 3: 97).
God’s command of avoiding intoxicant alcoholic beverages is
contained in verse 5: 90, as follows:
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants (khamr),
gambling, (sacrificing animals on) stone alters, and divining
arrows are but defilement from the work of Shaytan (Satan), so
avoid it that you may be successful.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ
وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ
فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
(الْمَائِدَةُ ، 5: 90).
The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, interpreted this verse (5: 90) as a
prohibition of intoxicant alcoholic beverages
as he stated in the following ‘Hadiths:
Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of
Allah, pbbuh, said: “Allah, praise to Him, has prohibited
Whoever, hears about this verse and he has any of these, he should
not drink or sell it” (Muslim: 1578).
عن أبي سعيد الخدري ، رضي الله ، أنه قال ، قال رسول الله ، صلى الله
عليه وسلم: "
إنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى حَرَّمَ الخَمْرَ، فمَن أَدْرَكَتْهُ هذِه
الآيَةُ وَعِنْدَهُ منها شيءٌ فلا يَشْرَبْ ، وَلَا يَبِعْ"
Anas Bin Malik, mAbpwt both, said that the Messenger of Allah,
pbbuh, ordered an announcer to announce that: “Intoxicants
(all forms of khamr)
have been prohibited” (Authenticated
by al-Albani, based on Sa’hi’h Abu Dawood: 3637, and was
Al-Bukhari: 2464, Muslim: 1980, and Ibn ‘Habban: 5363).
وعنْ أنسٍ بنِ مالكٍ ، رضيَ اللهُ عنهما ، أنَّ رسولَ اللهِ ، صلى
اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّمَ ، أمَرَ مُنَادِيًا يُنَادِي: "أَلَا إنَّ
الخَمْرَ قدْ حُرِّمَتْ"
(صححهُ الألباني ، عن صحيحِ أبي داودَ:
، وأخرجَهُ الْبُخَارِي: 2464
، ومُسلمُ: 1980
، وابنُ حبَّانِ: 5363).
Abdullah Bin ‘Omar, mAbpwt both, said that the Messenger of Allah,
pbbuh, said: “Every intoxicant is a (form of)
and every intoxicant is prohibited” (Muslim: 2003).
وعن عبدِ اللهِ بنِ عُمَرٍ ، رضي الله عنهما ، أن رسول الله ، صلى
الله عليه وسلم ، قال: "كلُّ مُسْكِرٍ خَمْرٌ وكلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حرامٌ"
(صححهُ الألباني ، عن صحيحِ النسائي:
، وأخرجَهُ مُسْلِمُ: 2003
، والبخاري: 5575).
For more details about the prohibition of intoxicants
see ruling (fatwa) number 96868, issued by the General Authority
of Islamic Affairs and Endowments (Awqaf),
in the UAE, at the following link:
The renowned Islamic scholar, Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi,
mentioned that drug use is prohibited by the Shari’a (Islamic
Law), without any disagreement among Muslim scholars. One piece of
evidence about its prohibition is that it does that which
intoxicants (khamr) do. He mentioned Caliph ‘Omar’s saying
about it: “Intoxicants are those which interfere in mental
functioning” (Agreed upon, ‘Omar in Lulu wal Murjan: 1905, Abu
Al-Qaradhawi added that drug use is also prohibited on the
basis of causing tepidity (lethargy), mentioning a ‘Hadith
narrated by the Mother of Believers, Um Salama, mAbpwh, who said
that the Prophet, pbbuh, “prohibited the use of substances which
cause intoxication or tepidity”
(Abu Dawood: 3686).
About the Author and the Book:
The author of
this book was born in Gaza, Palestine, in 1369 Hijriya (1950). He
immigrated with his family to the United States in 1986, where he had his Master’s degree in Cultural
Anthropology and his Ph.D. in Sociology. He taught courses about
these two disciplines throughout his career.
The authentic Quran
Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the
meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from
The works of the
three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn
Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as
these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for
their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough
knowledge of the Arabic language.
يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ
اللَّـهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّـهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ
، 61: 8).
They want to
extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will
perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it
(Al-Saff, 61: 8).