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Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Table of Contents

 

I. Introduction: Basic Information

 

1. Islam: A Brief Introduction

 

2. Three Levels of Faith: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan 

 

3. The Scientific Evidence That God Exists and the Holy Qur'an Is His Message to Humanity 

 

4. Creation and Evolution in the Holy Qur'an

 

5. Humans, As God's Caliphs on Earth

 

6. Adam's Contest With the Angels, and Getting Out of Paradise


7. Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves?  

 

8. The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings  

 

9. Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective 

 

10. Heart-Mind Relationship in the Holy Qur'an  

 

II. Islam: The Five Pillars of the Faith Structure

 

11. Islamic Proclamation of Faith

 

12. Performing Islamic Prayers

 

13. Giving Zakah (Charity)

 

14. Fasting and Ramadhan, Great Gifts from Allah to Muslims

 

15. Haj, Pilgrimage, the Fifth Pillar of Islam

 

III. Iman: Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar

 

16. Allah, As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran 

 

17. Angels

 

18. Noo'h, Noah, in the Holy Quran  

 

19. Ibrahim, Abraham, in the Holy Quran

 

20. Moussa, Moses, in the Holy Quran

 

21. 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, in the Holy Quran  

 

22. Muhammed in the Holy Quran

 

23. Prophet Muhammed's Night Journey and Ascent to Heavens, Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj

 

24. The Last Day, The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment

 

25. God's Precise Measurement and His Just Decree, Al-Qadar Wal Qadha

 

IV. I'hsan: Watching Allah in Speech and Deeds

 

1. Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I, Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands in the Holy Quran

 

2. The La (No) Commands

 

3. The Imperative Commands 

 

 ***

 

Articles with Islamic Perspective:

 

Health Care Crisis in the US: An Islamic Perspective

 

"Terrorism" & "Islamo-Fascism" Propaganda Campaigns: An Interactive Lecture

 

Six Questions About Islam, Muslims and Jews

 

Five Islamic Issues: Predestination and choice, position toward other religions, angels, and the End of Days

Food Islamic Rules and Teachings  

Are Muslim women second-class citizens  

 

The French Ban on Islamic Headscarf, an Interview with

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007-2010

 

Links to Islamic Topics 2007

 

Links to Islamic topics 2006

 

Links to Islamic topics 2005

 

Links to Islamic topics 2004

 

Links to Islamic topics, 2003  

 

2002 Links to Islamic topics

 

 

Islam:

 

A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity

 

18

 

Noo'h (Noah), the Ark Builder

 

Peace be upon him

 

in the Holy Quran

 

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

 

Updated on 25th of Dhul Qi'da, 1440 - 27th of July, 2019

 

***

 

 

 

 

 

 

1440 - 2019

 

 

***

 

ٰ

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

 

 

Introduction

 

As time passed after Adam, peace upon him (pbuh), humans started to forget Gods Message of Guidance to them, about how they can live happily in this life, and about the reward waiting for them in the Hereafter, in return for their good behavior.

 

Then, they reached a stage in which they almost forgot about the Message completely. They even worshipped statues of good men who died a long time before them. These were Wad, Suwa', Yaghouth, Ya'ouq, and Nassr, as mentioned in verse 71: 23. Some scholars say that these were Adam's children. 

 

 ( 71: 23). 

 

And they said, 'Never leave your gods and never leave Wad or Suwa' or Yaghouth, and Ya'ouq, and Nassr (Noo'h, 71: 23).  

 

Allah, praise to Him (ptH), sent Noo'h (Noah) (pbbuh), to guide them to the right path. He told them to worship Allah, instead of the helpless statues which they used to make. 

The poor and the powerless believed and accepted the Message but the powerful ones rejected it, ridiculed the Messenger (Noo'h), despised the believers, and even challenged him to bring God's punishment, which he was threatening them with, if they insisted on rejecting Gods Message. 

 

Noo'h lived 950 years among them. So, he preached God's Message to them for a long time. However, the number of the believers stayed small while the number of the disbelievers was increasing. 

 

Allah, praise to Him, revealed to Noo'h that the believers would not increase anymore. The disbelievers continued to reject the Message and ridicule the Messenger. Then, Noo'h asked Allah to destroy the disbelievers. 

 

Allah, ptH, decided to drown them in a flood of water resulting from continuous raining and overflow of underground springs.  

 

To save Noo'h and the believers, as well as the animals they domesticated, Allah, ptH, ordered Noo'h to build the ship (the Ark), which he and the believers did, with help from Allah and His Angels. 

Whenever the disbelievers passed by him, they would ridicule him for building a ship in an area which was far away from rivers, lakes, or seas. 

 

Allah told Noo'h about a sign, when he sees, he should embark on the ship together with the believers. That was when the fireplace in his home would be overflown with water, falling from the sky and coming out from underground. This meant that people could no longer make fire, necessary for food, washing, and other usages. 

 

When Noo'h saw the sign, he embarked on the ship together with the believers, and their animals, with help from angels. However, Noo'h's wife and one of his sons refused to embark because they were disbelievers. 

 

Noo'h did not know that his son was a disbeliever, which was why he asked Allah to save him but Allah, ptH, told Noo'h that his son was not a good person. Therefore, he was left to drown on top of a mountain that he took refuge on. 

 

The ship floated, saving the believers and their animals while the disbelievers drowned. 

 

Then, Allah, ptH, ordered the sky to stop raining and the land to swallow its water, thus allowing the ship to settle on top of the Mountain Judiy, which is believed to be in todays northern Iraq or southern Turkey, according to some interpreters. 

 

The believers and their animals disembarked the ship and started their new community.  

 

The story of Noo'h's people is very educational to humanity. It's about worshipping Allah, ptH, by being good to ourselves, to each-other, and to the environment. Otherwise, it's easy for Him to punish the disbelievers and replace them with good and kind-hearted believers. 

 

In its educational purposes, it's similar to the stories of other Messengers of God, namely Hood, Saleh, Loot, Moussa, and 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, peace be upon all of them, who were sent with God's Message to their people. When the disbelievers and aggressors of their time insisted on their arrogance and corruption, God destroyed them.  

 

This Chapter provides the story of Noo'h, pbuh, as it was related through the verses of the Holy Quran, with special attention to the flood location, the embarked animals, the scope of Noohs message, and divine justice.

 

 

The Flood Location

 

Scientifically speaking, geologists argue that there were floods in specific locations on Earth but not on the planet as a whole, at the same time. For example, one of these floods occurred in northern Iraq about 4,900 years ago, according to one account, and about 7,600 years ago, according to another account. It was caused by a huge flood covering the Black Sea and its surroundings, as a result of flooding the Mediterranean Sea. Much earlier, about 5 million years ago, the Mediterranean Sea and its surroundings were flooded by water from the Atlantic Ocean. [1] 

 

Thus, the discussion of this topic is not about whether there was a global flood or not. Rather, it is about the interpretations of the related Holy Quran verses.

 

The general view about the Nooh (Noah) flood has been that it covered the whole planet of Earth, which has been the main view of many Muslim scholars, such as the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran: Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, as well as the view of mainstream biblical scholars.

 

According to this general view, there were no other population groups on Earth than Noohs people, who were destroyed by the flood because of their disbelief. Only the few believers survived, by embarking on the ship (Ark). Thus, all humans of today are their direct descendants, according to the interpretation of verse 69: 11. [2] 

 

( 69: 11).

 

Indeed, when the water overflowed, We carried you (your ancestors) in the sailing ship (Al-Haqqa, 69: 11).

 

Some interpretations even limit todays humans to be only as Noohs descendants, using verse 37: 77 as the base for such interpretations.

 

( 37: 77).

And We made his (Noohs) descendants those remaining (Al-Saffat, 37: 77).

 

Discussing this general view using the context of verse 69: 11 (and verse 69: 12) leads to a different interpretation. Verses 69: 1-10 remind us of Gods punishment of the population groups which rejected His messages to them. These included Noohs people, Ad, Thamood, the Overturned (Ruined) Cities, and Pharaoh. Then, verses 69: 13-37 tell us about the hereafter, including the rewards awaiting the believers and the punishment awaiting the disbelievers.

 

Verses 69: 38-52 are directed towards the Arabs at the time of the revelation, urging them to believe in Gods message, sent to them through His Messenger, Muhammed, pbbuh, to avoid punishment in this life and in the hereafter, like that whih happened to the previously mentioned disbelieving population groups.

 

Thus, verse 69: 11 can be understood to apply to Arabs, who were descendants of the flood survivors but it does not apply to other population groups, which were not targeted by the flood, as stated in verse 11: 48.

 

ٰ ۚ ( 11: 48).  

 

It was said, "O Noo'h, disembark (from the ship) in peace from Us and blessings upon you and upon nations (descending from( those with you, and nations (to whom) We will grant enjoyment; then there will touch them from Us a painful punishment" (Hood, 11: 48). 

 

Concerning verse 37: 77, it can be interpreted to mean that Noohs descendants were those remaining of the people who experienced the flood, not necessarily of all humankind.

Verses 3: 33-34 also mention that Ibrahim (Abraham) and his descendants are also descendants of Nooh, which extended in this case to the Arabs in Makkah, some of whom are descendants of Ibrahim, through his son, Issmail.

 

ٰ ﴿٣٣   ۗ ﴿٣٤ ( 3: 33-34). 

 

Allah chose Adam, Noo'h (Noah), the family of Ibrahim (Abraham), and the family of 'Imran, over the worlds - (33)  

Descendants, some of them are from others. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (34) (Al-'Imran, 3: 33-34). 

 

***

An alternative view of the flood location has been emerging by a growing number of contemporary Islamic and biblical scholars, who argue that the flood was limited to the specific area where Noo'h's people lived, probably in northern Iraq. Whether the flood covered a specific location only, or the whole Earth is an interesting issue for researchers and students of the Holy Quran. [3]

 

The Islamic and biblical scholars who argue that the flood covered the whole Earth use two main hints. The first is the Arabic word () /ardh/, which they understood to mean "Earth," instead of land. The second is the mentioning of pairs of animals, which embarked on the ship (the Ark), in addition to the believers. Translations of the Holy Quran from

Arabic to English provide examples of how these two topics were addressed.

 

In 1440 (2019), there were 17 English translations of the Holy Quran posted on www.tanzil.net. In all of them, the word () /ardh/ was translated as earth, in Verse 11: 44, as follows: 

 

 ( 11: 44). 

 

And it was said, "O ardh (earth), swallow your water (Hood, 11: 44). 

 

This may be a suitable translation, as it is related to the flood water to be drained (swallowed) inside the surface of the land (earth). However, it does not indicate that this happened in the planet as a whole, as the water is drained in specific locations all over the world.

 

Some difference happened in translating the same word in another verse (71: 26). In 3 out of the 17 translations, the word /ardh/ was translated as land, as follows: [4]

 

  ( 71: 26). 

 

And Noah said, "My Lord, do not leave upon the ardh (Land / earth) from among the disbelievers an inhabitant (Noo'h, 71: 26). 

 

There is ample evidence from the Holy Quran that the Arabic word () /ardh/ means land, in addition to meaning Earth (the planet).

 

One example in which the word means Earth (the planet) unequivocally is when Allah, ptH, mentions His creation or ownership of the heavens and the Earth, as in verse 11: 7.

 

( 11: 7).

 

And it is He who created the heavens and the Earth in six days - and His Throne had been upon water (Hood, 11: 7).

 

Another example is verse 2: 30, which tells us about Gods will to make humans His deputies (Caliphs) on Earth.

 

ۖ  ( 2: 30).

 

And when your Lord said to the angels: I am making a caliph on the Earth (Al-Baqara, 2: 30).

 

However, the same Arabic word / ardh / also means ground, land, territory, or country, depending on the context. Thus, it cannot be translated as (Planet) "Earth" in all contexts.  

For example, in the following verses, the word /ardh/ means land or a specific territory. It refers to the Egyptian Sinai Desert in verse 5: 26 and the country of Egypt in verse 28: 4.  

 

In 7 out of the 17 translations, the word /ardh/ was translated as "land," in verse 5: 26. However, it was translated incorrectly as "earth" in the other ten translations. [5]

 

  ( 5: 26).   

 

(Allah) said, "Then indeed, it is forbidden to them for forty years (in which) they wander throughout the ardh (land or territory of Sinai). So, do not grieve over the defiantly disobedient people" (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 26). 

 

The meaning of the word /ardh/ becomes clearer in verse 28: 4 as "land" (country), with 13 out of the 17 translations translating it as such: [6]

 

ۚ  ( 28: 4).  

 

Indeed, Pharaoh exalted himself in the ardh (land of Egypt) and made its people into factions, oppressing a sector among them, slaughtering their (newborn) sons and keeping their females alive. Indeed, he was of the corrupters (Al-Qasas, 28: 4).  

 

Thus, the argument that the flood covered the whole Earth could have been as a result of confusing the meaning of this Arabic word /ardh/ (a form of which is also found in the Hebrew part of the Bible).

 

 

The Ark Animals

 

Concerning the second hint of embarking pairs of animals on the ship, in addition to the believers, it was mentioned in verses 11:40 and 23: 27. 

 

( 11 : 40). 

 

We said, "Carry upon the ship (of each pair) two mates of males and females (Hood, 11: 40).

 

( 23: 27).

 

put into the ship (of each pair) two mates of males and females (Al-Muminoon, 23: 27).

 

The general interpretation of these verses, by Islamic (and biblical) scholars, has been that the words of each pair refer to all animals on the planet. This is of course possible if Allah willed it and ordered His angels to do it (by bringing animals from all continents, putting them on the ship, providing them with food, and keeping the peace among them). However, these verses tell us that the task was given to Nooh, the human being, not to the angels, which was impossible for him to do it as such.

 

The possible thing for Nooh and the few believers with him was to take their domesticated animals with them on the ship, as they needed these animals during the period of the flood and after. This interpretation is supported by verses 16: 5-8 of the Holy Quran, which mention pairs of the Middle Eastern domesticated animals and their benefits to people.

 

ۗ ﴿٥  ﴿٦ ٰ ۚ ﴿٧  ۚ ﴿٨ ( 16: 5-8). 

 

And the grazing livestock (domesticated animals) He has created for you; in them is warmth and (numerous) benefits, and from them you eat. (5

 

And for you in them is (the enjoyment of) beauty when you bring them in (for the evening) and when you send them out (o pasture in the morning). (6)  

 

And they carry your loads to a land you could not have reached except with difficulty to yourselves. Indeed, your Lord is Kind and Merciful. (7

 

And (He created) the horses, mules, and donkeys for you to ride and (as) adornment. And He creates that which you do not know (8) (Al-Na'hl, 16: 5-8). 

 

Further, and more specifically, Allah, ptH, mentions pairs of domesticated animals, in verses 6: 142-144, as follows:     

 

ۚ ... ( 6: 142). 

 

ۖ ... ( 6: 143). 

 

...  ( 6: 144). 

 

And of the grazing livestock are carriers and (others whose hides are used as) furniture. Eat of that which Allah has provided for you ... (142)  

 

(These are) eight mate-pairs: Of the sheep two and of the goats two ...  (143

 

And of the camels two and of the cattle two (144) (Al-An'am, 6: 142-144). 

 

Thus, a possible and logical interpretation of verse 11: 40 is that the words "each pair" refer to the above-mentioned four pairs of domestic animals, and Allah, ptH, knows better. 

 

 

Was Nooh Sent to his People Only, or to Humanity as a Whole?

 

Verses 7: 59, 11: 25, 23: 23, and 71: 1 of the Holy Quran tell us clearly that Nooh, pbuh, was sent to his people only. There is no mention or even a hint that he was sent to humanity as a whole, as we read in these verses:

 

ٰ ٰ ( 7: 59).  

 

ٰ ( 11: 25).

 

ٰ ٰ ۖ ( 23: 23). 

 

ٰ ( 71: 1).  

 

We had certainly sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, and he said, "O my people! Worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him (Al-Araf, 7: 59).

 

And We had sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, (saying): "Indeed, I am to you a clear warner

 

And We had sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, and he said: "O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. Dou you not fear Him?"

 

Indeed, We sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, (saying to him): "Warn your people before there comes to them a painful punishment" (Nooh, 71: 1).

 

Further, verse 11: 48 mentions that there were other population groups, which enjoyed a prosperous life, also after the flood. Thus, this is another piece of evidence that the flood was a local even, affecting Noohs people, not a global event affecting other population groups on Earth.

 

ٰ ۚ ( 11: 48).

 

It was said, "O Nooh (Noah), disembark in peace from Us and blessings upon you and upon nations (descending) from those with you, as well as nations which We will grant enjoyment. Then, there will touch them from Us a painful punishment" (Hood, 11: 48).

 

A comparison between the missions of Nooh and Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon them, pbbut, clarifies the issue further. While the four verses mentioned above show that Nooh was sent to his people only, verse 34: 28 shows that Muhammed, pbbuh, was declared as Gods Messenger to humanity, as a whole. Verse 21: 107 even states that he was Gods Messenger to humans and other intelligent beings as well.

 

ٰ ( 34: 28).

 

And We have not sent you except to all people (humanity), as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. But most of the people do not know (Saba, 34: 28).

 

( 21: 107).

 

And We have not sent you (O Muhammad), except as a mercy to the worlds (Al-Anbiya, 21: 107).

The word worlds in verse 21: 107 above refers to the inhabitants of the heavens, Earth, and other habitats between them. [7]

 

Moreover, Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, demonstrated that he was tasked as Gods final Messenger to humanity. He did not limit his mission to the people of Makkah, or even Arabia. He actually extended it to people in other regions known to him in Asia and Africa. Moreover, he surrounded himself with African, Persian, and Roman companions, in addition to Arabs. [8]

 

 

Divine Justice

 

The most decisive evidence from the Holy Quran about the flood as a specific punishment for the people of Noo'h, not for the whole planet of Earth, comes from verses 25: 35-40, which tell us that they were punished just like other disbelievers in other specific times and specific locations.  

 

ٰ  

 

﴿٣٥ ﴿٣٦﴾   ﴿٣٧﴾ ٰ ﴿٣٨﴾   ﴿٣٩﴾     ﴿٤٠ ( 25: 35-40). 

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful  

 

And indeed We gave Moussa (Moses) the Scripture (the Torah), and placed his brother Haroun (Aaron) with him as a helper (partner in responsibility); (35)  

 

And We said: "Go you both to the people who have denied Our Ayat (pieces of evidences, verses, or signs)." Then We destroyed them with utter destruction. (36)  

 

And Noo'h's (Noah's) people, when they denied the Messengers, We drowned them, and We made them as a sign for humanity. And We have prepared a painful torment for the oppressors (wrong-doers). (37

 

And 'Ad, Thamoud, the dwellers of Al-Rass (pronounced as Ar-Rass), and many generations in between. (38

 

And for each of them, We put forward examples, and each (of them) We brought to utter ruin (because of their disbelief and evil deeds). (39)  

 

And indeed they (disbelievers) passed by the town (of Loot, Lot) on which was rained the destructive rain. Did they not then see it? They did! But they did not expect (believe in) resurrection. (40) (Al-Furqan, 25: 35-40). 

 

Thus, Allah, ptH, the Just, the Beneficent, and the Merciful, does not punish innocent people, as He also declares in verse 17: 15 of the Holy Quran:

 

ٰ ( 17: 15).

 

And We would never punish until We sent a messenger (Al-Issra, 17: 15).

 

Moreover, the Holy Quran does not tell us that Noohs people were the only humans on the planet. Therefore, the interpretation of verse 11: 48 continues to be upheld that there were other population groups around the world, who never saw Noo'h, or heard about him. They might even have had other Messengers of God sent to them, as we learn from verse 40: 78.

 

ۗ  ( 40: 78).

 

And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those We have told you about, and among them are those We have not told you about (Ghafir, 40: 78).

 

Actually, all of the stories in the Holy Quran about Gods punishment were limited to specific population groups, in specific geographical locations, as were the cases of those who disbelieved Gods messengers: Hood, Salih, Shuayb, Loot, Moussa, and Eissa, peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them.

 

So, Allah, the Just, the Beneficent, and the Merciful would not cause other population groups to drown and disappear just because He wanted to punish the disobedient people of Noo'h, in a northern Iraq town.

 

 

The Story of Noo'h (Noah) 

 

The story of the Messenger of Allah, Noo'h, and his people, as summarized above, is mainly told in three main chapters (suras) of the Holy Quran, particularly in 7: 59-64, 11: 25-49, 23: 23-29, and 71: 1-28.

Verses 7: 59-64 tell us that Allah, ptH, sent Noo'h (Noah) as a messenger to his people, calling on them to stop worshipping statues of false gods and to worship Allah, their Creator, instead. They not only disbelieved him but also described him as being misguided. Then, they were punished by drowning them, while saving Noo'h and the believers with him, in the ship they were instructed to build. 

ٰ  

 

ٰ ٰ ﴿٥٩  ﴿٦٠  ٰ ﴿٦١  ﴿٦٢﴾  ٰ ﴿٦٣﴾  ۚ ﴿٦٤ ( 7: 59-64).  

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful  

 

We had certainly sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, and he said, "O my people! Worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a tremendous Day. (59

 

The eminent among his people said, "Indeed, we see you in clear misguidance." (60

 

(Noo'h) said, "O my people, there is no misguidance in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds." (61)

 

I convey to you the messages of my Lord, I advise you; and I know from Allah that which you do not know. (62

 

Do you wonder that there has come to you a reminder from your Lord, through a man from among you, to warn you and, that you may become righteous, so you may receive mercy (from Allah)." (63

 

But they disbelieved him. So, We saved him and those who were with him in the ship, and We drowned those who disbelieved in Our signs. Indeed, they were a blind people (who could not see the truth). (64) (Al-A'araf, 7: 59-64). 

 

*** 

Verses 71: 1-28 describe in some detail how Noo'h tried hard to convey God's message to his people, in different ways. He warned them of God's punishment if they persisted in rejecting His messages to them. He also reminded them of the countless favors God has showered them with. However, they still persisted on their disbelief and arrogance. When Noo'h lost hope that they would believe, he supplicated to God to destroy them. 

 

ٰ  

 

ٰ ﴿١  ﴿٢  ﴿٣  ٰ ۚ ۖ ﴿٤  ﴿٥  ﴿٦  ﴿٧ ( 71: 1- 7). 

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful  

 

Indeed, We sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, (saying to him): "Warn your people before there comes to them a painful punishment." (1

 

He said: "O my people, indeed, I am to you a clear warner, (2

 

Worship Allah, be conscious of Him, and obey me. (3

 

(If you do, He) will forgive you of your sins and delay (your reckoning) to a specified term. Indeed, the time (set by) Allah, when it comes, will not be delayed, if you only knew." (4

He said: "My Lord, indeed, I invited my people (to accept Your messages) night and day. (5

 

But my invitation did not increase them, except in flight (away from Your guidance). (6

 

And indeed, every time I invited them that You may forgive them, they would put their fingers in their ears, covered themselves with their garments, persisted (in not listening to me), and were excessively arrogant (in their disbelief) (7) (Noo'h, 71: 1- 7).  

 

﴿٨ ﴿٩  ﴿١٠  ﴿١١  ﴿١٢  ﴿١٣  ﴿١٤ ( 71: 8-14). 

 

Then, I invited them loudly. (8

 

Then, I announced to them (publicly), and confided to them secretly (9

 

I said (to them): "Ask forgiveness of your Lord. Indeed, He is ever a Forgiver. (10)  

 

He sends (rain from) the sky upon you, in (continuing) showers (11

 

And provides you with wealth and children and has made for you gardens and has made for you rivers. (12

 

Why do you not attribute to Allah (due) respect, (13

 

(Though) He has created you in stages? (14) (Noo'h, 71: 8-14).   

 

﴿١٥﴾  ﴿١٦  ﴿١٧  ﴿١٨  ﴿١٩  ﴿٢٠ ( 71: 15- 20). 

 

Do you not see (think about) how Allah has created seven heavens in layers (15

 

And made the Moon therein a (reflector of) light, and made the Sun a (burning) lamp? (16

 

And Allah has caused you to grow from the earth a (progressive) growth (like plants). (17

 

Then, He returns you into it, and extract you (from it another) extraction. (18

 

And Allah has made for you the earth an expanse (spread out), (19

 

That you may follow therein roads of passage" (20(Noo'h, 71: 15-20).    

 

﴿٢١  ﴿٢٢  ﴿٢٣﴾  ۖ ﴿٢٤  ﴿٢٥﴾  ﴿٢٦  ﴿٢٧  ﴿٢٨﴾ ( 71: 21-28).  

 

Noo'h (Noah) said: "My Lord, indeed, they have disobeyed me and followed him whose wealth and children will not increase him except in loss." (21

And they conspired an immense conspiracy. (22

 

And said: "Never leave your gods. Never leave Wadd, Suwa', Yaghuth, Ya'ouq, and Nasr. (23

 

And they have already misled many (people with their falsehood)." (So, my Lord), do not increase the wrongdoers except in error." (24

 

Because of their sins, they were drowned (in this life) and (will be) put into the Fire (in the hereafter), and they will not find supporters to them, besides Allah. (25

 

And Noo'h (Noah) said: "My Lord, do not leave upon the land from among the disbelievers an inhabitant. (26

 

Indeed, if You leave them, they mislead Your worshippers, and do not beget except (every) wicked one and (confirmed) disbeliever. (27

 

My Lord, forgive me, my parents, and whoever enters my house a believer. (Extend Your forgiveness to) the believing men and believing women. And do not increase the wrongdoers except in destruction." (28) (Noo'h, 71: 21-28). 

 

*** 

Verses 11: 25-49 mention the main arguments and counter-arguments between Noo'h and the disbelievers, who finally challenged him to bring about God's punishment which he kept warning them about. At that point, Allah, ptH, told Noo'h to build the ship (the Ark), in which he and the believers would be saved, together with their animals. As he was building the ship, the disbelievers would be mocking him for building a ship in an area away from any seas, rivers, or lakes. When he finished building it, Allah, ptH, ordered their territory to be flooded by continuous rainfall and underground water flow. While Noo'h, pbuh, and the believers were saved in the ship, the disbelievers drowned by the flood, which covered even their mountains.  

ٰ

 

ٰ ﴿٢٥  ۖ ﴿٢٦  ٰ ﴿٢٧  ٰ ﴿٢٨  ۖ ۚ ۚ ٰ ﴿٢٩  ۚ ﴿٣٠  ۖ ۖ ﴿٣١﴾ ( 11: 25-31).  

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful  

 

And We had sent Noo'h (Noah) to his people, (saying): "Indeed, I am to you a clear warner. (25

 

That you do not worship except Allah. I fear for you the punishment of a painful day." (26

 

The (powerful) eminent among those who disbelieved from his people said: "We do not see you but as a human like us, and we do not see you followed except by those who are the lowest of us, at first suggestion. And we do not see in you (and your followers) over us any merit. Rather, we think you are liars." (27

 

He said, "O my people! Have you considered that I am upon clear evidence from my Lord, and (that) He has given me mercy from Himself. However, you have not been able to realize that. Should we force it upon you while you are averse to it? (28)  

 

And O my people, I do not ask you for it (teaching you God's message) any wealth. My reward is not (from anybody) other than Allah. And I am not going to drive away those who have believed. Indeed, they will meet their Lord, but I see that you are a people behaving ignorantly. (29

 

And O my people! Who would protect me from Allah if I drove them away? Do you not ponder? (30

 

And I do not say to you that I have the treasuries (depositories of the provision) of Allah, or that I know the unseen, nor do I say that I am an angel, nor do I say to those upon whom your eyes look down at that Allah will not grant them any good. Allah is most knowing of what is within their souls. Indeed, (if I do), I would then be among the wrongdoers." (31) (Hood, 11: 25-31). 

 

﴿٣٢  ﴿٣٣  ۚ ﴿٣٤﴾  ۖ ﴿٣٥ ٰ ﴿٣٦  ۚ ﴿٣٧  ۚ ﴿٣٨  ﴿٣٩ ( 11: 32-39).

 

They said: "O Noo'h (Noah), you have argued with us and been frequent in argument with us. So, bring us (the punishment) you promised us, if you should be of the truthful." (32

 

He said: "Only Allah will bring it to you if He wills, and you will not be able to stop (Him) (33

 

(At that time), my advice will not benefit you, (even) if I wished to advise you. If Allah wanted to put you in error, He is your Lord, and to Him you will be returned." (34

 

Or do they say (about Prophet Muhammad that), "He fabricated (the Holy Quran, including the story of Noo'h)"? Say, "If I have fabricated it, then upon me is (the consequence of) my crime; but I am innocent of what (crimes) you commit." (35

 

And it was revealed to Noo'h (Noah) that, "No one will believe from your people except those who have already believed. So, do not be distressed by what they have been doing. (36

 

And make (build) the ship (the Ark) with Our eyes (watching you) and Our inspiration (guiding you), and do not address Me concerning those who have wronged. They are to be drowned." (37)  

 

And he constructed the ship (the Ark), and whenever an assembly of the powerful (eminent) of his people passed by him, they ridiculed him. He said: "If you ridicule us, then we will ridicule you, just as you ridicule. (38

 

And you are going to know who will get a punishment that will disgrace him (in this life) and upon whom will descend an enduring punishment (in the Hereafter)" (39) (Hood, 11: 32-39).  

 

ٰ ۚ ﴿٤٠  ۚ ﴿٤١  ٰ ﴿٤٢  ٰ ۚ ۚ ﴿٤٣  ۖ ﴿٤٤ ٰ ﴿٤٥  ۖ ۖ ۖ ﴿٤٦  ۖ ﴿٤٧  ٰ ۚ ﴿٤٨  ۖ ٰ ۖ ۖ ﴿٤٩ ( 11: 40-49).  

 

(So it was), until when Our command came and (when) the oven overflowed (became covered with water), We said: "Load (carry) upon the ship of each two pairs and your family, except those about whom the word has preceded, and whoever has believed." But only a few had believed with him. (40

 

And (Noo'h) said: "Embark in it. In the name of Allah is its course and its anchorage. Indeed, my Lord is Forgiving and Merciful." (41

 

And it sailed with them through waves like mountains, and Noo'h (Noah) called his son, who was separated (from him), "O my son, come aboard with us, and do not be with the disbelievers." (42

 

(But his son) said, "I will take refuge on a mountain (which will) protect me from the water." (Noo'h) said, "There is no protector today from the decree of Allah, except for whom He gives mercy." And the waves came between them, and he was among the drowned. (43

 

And it was said: "O land (earth), swallow your water, and O sky, withhold (your rain)." And the water subsided, and the matter was accomplished, and (the ship) rested on the (mountain of) Judiy. And it was said: "Away with the wrongdoing people." (44

 

And Noo'h called on his Lord and said: "My Lord, my son is of my family; and indeed, Your promise is true; and You are the most just of judges!" (45)  

(Allah) said: "O Noo'h, indeed he is not of your family. He is (one whose) work was not righteous. So do not ask Me for that about which you have no knowledge. I admonish you, not to be among the ignorant." (46

 

(Noo'h) said: "My Lord, I seek refuge with You from asking that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have mercy upon me, I will be among the losers." (47

 

It was said, "O Noo'h, disembark (from the ship) in peace from Us and blessings upon you and upon nations (descending from( those with you, and other nations (to whom) We will grant enjoyment; then there will touch them from Us a painful punishment." (48

 

That is from the news of the unseen, which We reveal to you, (O Muhammad). You did not know (about) it, neither you nor your people, before this. So, be patient, for the (best) outcome is for the righteous. (49) (Hood, 11: 40-49). 

 

***

Finally, verses 23: 23-29 summarize the morale of the Noo'h story. Allah, ptH, sent His messenger to bring his stray people to the right path. They disbelieved and ridiculed him, which triggered God's punishment to them. For Noo'h and the believers with him, they were saved from the flood by the ship, which prompted giving thanks to Allah, their savior and supporter. 

ٰ  

 

ٰ ٰ ۖ ﴿٢٣  ٰ ٰ ﴿٢٤  ٰ ﴿٢٥  ﴿٢٦  ۙ ۖ ۖ ﴿٢٧ ﴿٢٨  ﴿٢٩ ( 23: 23-29). 

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful  

 

And We had sent Noo'h to his people, and he said: "O my people, worship Allah; you have no other deity than Him. Dou you not fear Him (try to avoid His punishment)?" (23)  

 

But the eminent among those who disbelieved from his people said: "This is not but a human like yourselves, who wants to make himself superior to you, and if Allah had willed (to send a messenger), He would have sent down angels. We have not heard of this among our forefathers. (24

 

He is not but a man possessed with madness, so wait for a time (until he stops preaching)." (25

 

(Noah) said: "My Lord, support me over what they have disbelieved me." (26

So, We inspired to him: "Make (build) the ship with Our eyes (watching you), and Our inspiration (guiding you). When Our command comes, and the oven overflows (with water), put into it from each pair (two mates) and your family, except those on whom the decree (of destruction) has preceded. And do not address Me concerning those who have wronged. They are to be drowned. (27

 

And when you have boarded the ship, you and those with you, then say: "Praise to Allah, Who has saved us from the wrongdoing people." (28

 

And say: "My Lord, let me land at a blessed landing place, and You are the Best of Accommodators." (29) (Al-Mu'minoon, 23: 23-29). 

 

 

Other Verses Mentioning Noo'h in the Holy Quran 

 

Noo'h, pbuh was also mentioned in sixteen other verses in the Holy Quran. He was describe as one of the chosen messengers of Allah, ptH (Al-'Imran, 3: 33-34). He received revelations (Al-Nissa, 4: 163), was guided (Al-An'am, 6: 84), Arabs were successors of his people (Al-A'araf, 7: 69), and the story of his people was told to the ones after them (Al-Tawba, 9: 70, Hood, 11: 89, and Ibrahim, 14: 9). 

 

When he lost hope of his people to follow him, he challenged them to hurt him if they can and told them that he would continue inviting them for the path of Allah, looking for reward only from Him, not from them (Younus, 10: 71-72). 

 

Noo'h was also described as a grateful worshipper and Children of Israel were of his descendants (Al-Issra, 17: 2-3). Allah bestowed His favor on the Prophets, who were of Adams descendants and of those carried (in the ship) with Noo'h (Maryam, 19: 58). 

 

When he called on Allah, He responded to him, and saved him and his family from the great disaster (the flood), and from the evil people, who were left to drown, all together (Al-Anbiya, 21: 76-77). 

 

And if they disbelieve you (O Muhammad), so did the people of Noo'h, 'Aad, and Thamood, before them (Al-Haj, 22: 42). [9]

 

 

Conclusion 

 

In its educational purposes, the story of Noo'h, pbuh, is similar to the stories of other Messengers of Allah,  such as Hood, Salih, Loot, Moussa, and 'Eissa, Jesus Christ, peace be upon all of them, who were sent with God's Messages to their people. But when their peoples insisted on disbelief, arrogance, and corruption, God destroyed them.  

 

The core of the Message is for people to worship Allah, praise to Him, by being good to themselves, to each-other, and to the environment, instead of worshipping other people or the helpless statues, as in this case.  

 

The poor and the powerless are usually quick in believing God's Messengers and in following their Messages. However, the powerful ones are usually too arrogant to truly believe in God and His Messages to humanity. In Noohs case, not only they rejected the Message but they also ridiculed the Messenger and despised the believers. They even challenged God to bring His punishment upon them, which they got at the end, in this life and in the Hereafter. 

 

So, they were punished with a flood, which affected them alone, not the whole planet, as Allah, the Just, the Beneficent, and the Merciful would not cause other population groups and species to drown and disappear just because He wanted to punish the disobedient people in a northern Iraq town.

 

====================================================================================================================================

 

Notes:

 

[1] Collins argued that the evidence by the scientifically-dated flood deposits shows that it would be possible for a flood to have occurred in mid- Mesopotamia (northern Iraq), perhaps about 2,900 BCE, that is about 4,900 years ago. For more information, see his article:

 

Collins, Lorence G. 2009. Yes, Noah's Flood May Have Happened, But Not Over the Whole Earth. National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Volume: 29 Issue: 5 (September-October).

 

The article is also posted on the following link:

 

https://ncse.com/library-resource/yes-noahs-flood-may-have-happened-not-over-whole-earth

 

Geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman argued that the Black Sea flood was so big that it also flooded the Mesopotamian area between the two rivers of Euphrates and Tigris, causing the Nooh flood, about 7,600 years ago. For more details about their research findings, see their book:

 

Ryan, William and Walter Pitman. 2000. Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About The Event That Changed History. Simon & Schuster.

Their findings were also reviewed in the following article:

 

Trefil, James. 2000. Evidence for a Flood. Smithsonian Magazine (April 1). The article is also posted on the following link:

 

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/evidence-for-a-flood-102813115/

 

Geologist Carol A. Hill published a thorough article about the subject and concluded that the Noachian flood was local, not universal.

 

Hill, Carol A. 2002. The Noachian Flood: Universal or Local? Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Volume 54, Number 3 (September).

Her article can be read totally on the net, at:

 

https://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/2002/PSCF9-02Hill.pdf

 

[2] A review of the views of the main Islamic and biblical scholars about the flood can be found in a book published in Bahrain, by the Society for Cultural and Social Revival, in 2009 (in Arabic). Among the reviewed topics are the location of the flood, the animals taken in the Ark, and whether Noohs message was specific to his people or to humanity as a whole.

 

The book authors also compared the flood story from the ancient Iraqi records (such as Gilgamesh), the Bible, and the Holy Quran. Their conclusion was that the flood was local, targeting the nonbelievers, who rejected Gods message. They also argued that the animals taken into the ship were the domestic animals the believers had.

 

( ) . : " " . 2009.

 

.   . :

 http://uruk-warka.dk/news/2016-06/TheFlow.pdf 

 

[3] Contemporary mainstream Muslim scholars, preachers, and active internet callers for Islam (Duah) adhere to the general view that the Nooh flood was global, covering the whole planet, and destroying all humans except those who were carried with Nooh on the ship (Ark).

 

It was interesting to find one contemporary scholar who mentioned that the flood was limited to the location of Noohs people. However, he held the general opinion that Noohs people were the only people on Earth. That was the late Saudi Mufti, Shaikh Abdul Aziz Bin Baz.

 

In the Arabic radio program Edicts of Lessons ( ), he said, Allah knows better. The meaning is that Allah destroyed all people on Earth. He did. But it does not necessarily mean that the flood covered the whole Earth. The intended meaning is the destruction of people but the areas which were not inhabited by people, may not have covered by the flood.

 

. . .

 

" " : " ǿ" : " . . . ."

 

https://binbaz.org.sa/fatwas/23538/------- 

 

[4] In 3 out of the 17 translations, the word /ardh/ was translated as land, in verse 71: 26. These are the translations of Ahmed Reza Khan, Pickthall, and Shakir.

 

[5] In 7 out of the 17 translations, the word /ardh/ was translated as "land," in verse 5: 26. These are the translations of Hilali & Khan, Itani, Mubarakpuri, Sahih International, Serwar, Shakir and Yusuf Ali.

 

[6] In 14 out of the 17 translations, the word /ardh/ was translated correctly as "land" (country), in verse 28: 4. However, in the other 3 translations, it was incorrectly translated as earth. These are the translations of Daribalidi, Picthall, Reza Khan.

 

[7] The word worlds in verse 21: 107 refers to the inhabitants of heavens, Earth, and in between habitats, as explained by verses 26: 23-24, as follows:   

 

﴿٢٣ ۖ ﴿٢٤﴾ ( 26: 23-24).

 

Pharaoh said, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens, earth, and that between them, if you should be convinced" (24) (Al-Shuara, 26: 23-24).

 

Thus, through the everlasting message he delivered (the Holy Quran), the final Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, pbbuh, was sent to all humans on Earth, as well as to other intelligent inhabitants of heavens, and that which is in between heavens and Earth, such as the Jinn, as mentioned in verses 72: 8-9.

 

﴿٨ ۖ ﴿٩ ( 72: 8-9).

 

And we (the Jinn) have sought (o reach) the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames. (8) And we used to sit therein in positions for hearing, but whoever listens now will find a burning flame lying in wait for him (9) (Al-Jinn, 72: 8-9).

 

Examples about that meaning are mentioned in verses 72: 1-2, in which the Jinn said that they heard recitation of the Holy Quran and they believed in it, and in verse 72: 14, in which they declared that some of them were Muslims and others were not. Moreover, they described the Holy Quran as a Gods Book, which was revealed after Moussa (Moses), as follows:

ٰ

 

﴿١ ۖ ﴿٢﴾ ( 72: 1-2).

 

ۖ ٰ ( 72: 14).

 

ۖ ٰ ﴿٢٩ ٰ ٰ ﴿٣٠ ﴿٣١ ( 46: 29-31).

 

Say (O Muhammad), "It has been revealed to me that a group of the jinn listened and said, 'Indeed, we have heard an amazing Quran. (1) It guides to the right course, and we have believed in it. And we will never associate with our Lord anyone (2) (Al-Jinn, 72: 1-2).

 

And among us are Muslims (who are in submission to Allah), and among us are the unjust. And whoever has become Muslim - those have sought out the right course (Al-Jinn, 72: 14).

 

And (Mention O Muhammad( when We directed to you a few of the jinn, listening to the Quran. And when they attended it, they said, "Listen attentively." And when it was concluded, they went back to their people, warning (them). (29) They said, "O our people, indeed, we have heard a (recited) Book revealed after Moussa (Moses), confirming what was before it, guiding to the truth and to a straight path. (30) O our people, respond to the caller for Allah (the Messenger) and believe in him; Allah will forgive for you your sins and safeguard you from a painful punishment (31) (Al-Ahqaf, 46; 29-31).

 

[8] Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, surrounded himself with Companions who were of diverse racial backgrounds, such as the African Bilal, Persian Salman, and Roman Suhayb, in addition to his Arab Companions.

 

He also sent messages to regional leaders telling them about Islam, inviting them to accept it, and telling them that he was sent to all people. These were messages sent to the Roman Byzantine King, Heracles; the Persian King, Khosrow Parvis; the Egyptian King, Muqawqis, the Ethiopian King, Najashi; the Arab kings of Bahrain, Oman, and Yemen, as well as the tribal leaders in the Arabian Peninsula. For more information, see the following two links:

 

https://www.islamweb.net/media/index.php?page=article&lang=A&id=157683

 

https://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/60668/

 

The Prophets message to  the Persian King, Khosrow Parvis, was an example of telling leaders that he was sent to all people. The text of the message was as follows:

 

" : . . . ".

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, from Muhammed, the Messenger of Allah to Kisra (Khosrow), the Great Man of Persia: Peace to whoever follows (Gods) guidance and believes in Allah and His Messenger, and bear witnesses that theres no other God but Allah and Muhammed is His worshipper and His Messenger. I invite for the path of Allah, as I am the Messenger of Allah to all people, to warn the living and to (inflict Gods) punishment on disbelievers. Submit (to Allah) and you will be saved. If you reject, you carry the sin of the Mazdaists (your people, the Persians who follow Mazdaism, or Zoroastrianism).

 

https://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/51922/

 

[9] Nooh, pbuh, was also mentioned in sixteen other verses in the Holy Quran. These are 3: 33-34, 4: 163, 6: 84, 7: 69, 9: 70, 10: 71-72, 11: 89, 14: 9, 17: 2-3, 19: 58, 21: 76-77, and 22: 42. Here are the texts and translations of these verses:

 

ٰ ﴿٣٣  ۗ ﴿٣٤﴾ ( 3: 33-34). 

 

Allah chose Adam, Noo'h (Noah), the family of Ibrahim (Abraham), and the family of 'Imran, over the worlds - (33)  

Descendants, some of them are from others. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (34) (Al-'Imran, 3: 33-34). 

 

ٰ ۚ  ( 4: 163). 

 

We have revealed to you, (O Muhammad), as We revealed to Noo'h and the prophets after him (Al-Nissa, 4: 163).  

 

ۚ ۚ ۖ  ( 6: 84). 

 

And We gave to (Ibrahim), Iss'haq (Isaac) and Ya'qoob (Jacob). We guided both, and We guided Noo'h before (Al-An'am, 6: 84).  

 

  ( 7: 69). 

 

And remember (O People of 'Aad) when He made you successors after the people of Noo'h (Al-A'araf, 7: 69). 

 

  ( 9: 70). 

 

Has there not reached them the news of those before them (particularly), the people of Noo'h, 'Aad, and Thamood? (Al-Tawba, 9: 70). 

 

﴿٧١  ۖ ۖ ﴿٧٢﴾ ( 10: 71-72). 

 

And recite to them the news of Noo'h, when he said to his people: "O my people, if my residence and my reminding (you) of the signs of Allah has become burdensome upon you, then I have relied upon Allah. So, resolve upon your plan and (call upon) your associates. Then, let not your plan be obscure to you. Then, carry it out upon me, and do not give me respite. (71

 

And if you turn away (from my advice), then no payment have I asked of you. My reward is only from Allah, and I have been commanded to be of the Muslims (of those who submit to God)." (72) (Younus, 10: 71-72). 

ۚ   ( 11: 89). 

 

(Shu'ayb said) And O my people! Let not (your) dissension from me cause you to be struck by that similar to what struck the people of Noo'h, or the people of Hood, or the people of Sali'h. And the people of Loot are not from you far away (Hood, 11: 89). 

ۛ   ( 14: 9). 

 

Has there not reached you the news of those before you - the people of Noo'h, 'Aad, Thamood, and those after them? (Ibrahim, 14: 9). 

 

﴿٢  ۚ ﴿٣﴾ ( 17: 2-3).  

 

And We gave Moses the Scripture and made it a guidance for the Children of Israel, that you do not take other than Me as Disposer of affairs, (2

Descendants of those We carried (in the ship) with Noo'h. Indeed, he was a grateful worshipper (3) (Al-Issra, 17: 2-3). 

 

ٰ   ( 19: 58). 

 

Those were the ones upon whom Allah bestowed favor, from among the prophets, of the descendants of Adam, and of those We carried (in the ship) with Noo'h (Maryam, 19: 58). 

 

ٰ ﴿٧٦﴾  ۚ ﴿٧٧ ( 21: 76-77). 

And (mention) Noo'h, when he called (on Allah) before, so We responded to him (and saved him) and his family from the great disaster (the flood). (76

 

And We saved him from the people who denied Our signs. Indeed, they were a people of evil. So, We drowned them, all together (77) (Al-Anbiya, 21: 76-77). 

 

 ( 22: 42). 

 

And if they disbelieve you (O Muhammad), so did the people of Noo'h, 'Aad, and Thamood, before them (Al-Haj, 22: 42).   

 

====================================================================================================================================

 

About the Author and the Book:

 

* The author of this book has a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Masters degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the United States since 1986.
 

The authentic Quran Arabic text is used as a reference for the translation of the meanings of the Quran verses, particularly from www.tanzil.net.

 

The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.  

 

  ( 61: 8).  

 

They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).

 

 

 

Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.

editor@aljazeerah.info