A Scientific View of God's
Message to Humanity By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Table of Contents
II. Islam: The
Five Pillars of the Faith Structure
Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar
Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do
2. The La (No) Commands
3. The Imperative Commands
Articles with Islamic
Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Table of Contents
II. Islam: The
Five Pillars of the Faith Structure
Allah, His Angels, Messengers, Messages, Latter Day, and Qadar
Watching Allah in What We Say and What We Do
2. The La (No) Commands
3. The Imperative Commands
Articles with Islamic Perspective:
A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
Spirit, Soul, Mind, Self, and Happiness, from an Islamic Perspective
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
Updat ed on the 16th of Dhul Qi'da, 1401 -
July 7, 2020
ed on the 16th of Dhul Qi'da, 1401 - July 7, 2020
الرُّوحُ وَالْعَقْلُ وَالنَّفْسُ وَالسَّعَادةُ ،
الرُّوحُ وَالْعَقْلُ وَالنَّفْسُ وَالسَّعَادةُ ،
مِنْ مَنْظُورٍ إسْلامِيٍ
مِنْ مَنْظُورٍ إسْلامِيٍ
حسن علي النجار
حسن علي النجار
تمت مراجعة هذا الفصل في السادس عشر من ذي القعدة ، 1401 ه - أالسابع من يوليو 2020 م
أعوذُ باللهِ منَ الشيطانِ الرجيم
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
The concepts of Spirit, soul, mind, self, and happiness are closely related in the Holy Quran. This Chapter attempts to explain some meanings, which are associated with these concepts, their interconnectedness, and their relevance to Islamic teachings in general.
Whenever the word Spirit (roo'h, رُوح) is mentioned in the Holy Quran, it refers to a characteristic of God, praise to Him, and to Jibril, peace to him. However, it is the source of the human soul, which includes the capabilities of the human existence (life), acquisition of knowledge (the mind), and morality (the self, nafs, نَفْس), as discussed in Chapter 8 of this book. 
While we, as humans, have started to understand the relationship between the human brain and the mind it incubates, we know very little about the Spirit, as we learn from the Holy Quran: 
وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ ۖ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا" (الإسراء ، 17: 85)
And they ask you about the soul. Say, "The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And you (humans) have not been given of knowledge (about it) except a little" (Al-Issra, 17: 85).
Scientists of our time have been able to clone animals. This has made it easier for people to believe that the All-Knowledgeable Creator, praise to Him, is capable of resurrecting (cloning) the human body on the Last Day. However, for Reckoning and Judgment to happen on that Day, the human soul has to return to its body.
The current information revolution has demonstrated that information can be captured in compacted disks (CDs), mobile audio-visual drives and devices, as well as computer hard drives and smart phones. Then, it can be transferred through space (from Earth to satellites orbiting our planet, then back to Earth, to be captured back by various devices). However, humans have neither been capable of transferring information directly from the human brain nor to it.
This is the sphere of Allah (God), praise to Him, so far. At the time of death, He sends His angels to take the human soul. They transfer it from the brain to the barzakh, which is a place where it is kept until the Last Day, on which the human body will be resurrected. Then, it will be paired with its soul, as we are told in the Holy Quran: 
وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ (التكوير ، 81: 7).
And when the souls are paired (Al-Takweer, 81: 7).
Faith and Happiness
Those who truly believe in Allah and in His ability to resurrect them for reckoning, on the Last Day, would behave in a good way during their first life time on Earth. This includes doing good deeds, being patient, and showing contentment, which is the “good life,” mentioned in the following verse of the Holy Quran:
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (النحل ، 16: 97).
Whoever does good deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer - We will surely cause him (or her) to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward (in the Hereafter) according to the best of what they used to do (Al-Na'hl, 16: 97).
Believers will also enjoy the everlasting happiness in Paradise, which their Lord promised them with, and were given glad tidings about, as follows:
وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ سُعِدُوا فَفِي الْجَنَّةِ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ رَبُّكَ ۖ عَطَاءً غَيْرَ مَجْذُوذٍ (هود ، 11: 108).
And concerning those who will be happy, they will be in the Paradise, everlasting therein, as long as the heavens and the earth last, except as your Lord wills, an extended gift” (Hood, 11: 108).
Conversely, those who do not want to believe in the Day of Reckoning may act in an evil or a bad way during their life time on Earth. As a result, they will be punished by not living in peace and happiness in this life and by being punished in the Hellfire in the hereafter, as we read in Verse 3: 56 as well as in Verses 20: 124-127 and in Verses 11: 105-108 of the Holy Quran.
فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَأُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّاصِرِينَ (آل عمران ، 3: 56).
And as for those who disbelieved, I will punish them with a severe punishment in this lower life and the Hereafter, and they will have no helpers" (Al-'Imran, 3: 56).
وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ ﴿١٢٤﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَىٰ وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًا ﴿١٢٥﴾ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ ﴿١٢٦﴾ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي مَنْ أَسْرَفَ وَلَمْ يُؤْمِن بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ ۚ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَشَدُّ وَأَبْقَىٰ ﴿١٢٧﴾ (طه ، 20: 124-127).
And whoever turns away from My remembrance - indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Rising (Resurrection) blind." (124)
He will say, "My Lord, why have you raised me blind while I was (during my first life) seeing?" (125)
(Allah) will say, "Thus, Our signs came to you, and you forgot them; and thus, you will this Day be forgotten." (126)
And thus, We will recompense he who transgressed and did not believe in the signs of his Lord. And the punishment of the Hereafter is more severe and more enduring (127) (Ta-Ha, 20: 124-127).
يَوْمَ يَأْتِ لَا تَكَلَّمُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ فَمِنْهُمْ شَقِيٌّ وَسَعِيدٌ ﴿١٠٥﴾ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ شَقُوا فَفِي النَّارِ لَهُمْ فِيهَا زَفِيرٌ وَشَهِيقٌ ﴿١٠٦﴾ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا مَا دَامَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ رَبُّكَ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ فَعَّالٌ لِّمَا يُرِيدُ ﴿١٠٧﴾ (هود ، 11: 105-107).
(In) a coming Day, no nafs (self) shall speak except by His permission. Of those (gathered) some will be wretched and some will be happy (105)
Concerning those who are wretched, they will be in the Fire. For them therein exhaling and inhaling (106)
They will be everlasting therein, as long as the heavens and the earth last, except as your Lord wills, for your Lord is the Doer of what He wants (107) (Hood, 11: 105-107).
If we think about God’s commands, we will find them aiming at people’s good and their happiness in this lower life, before reaching the hereafter. All good deeds and the ordained ways of worship, such as prayers, giving zakat (charity), and fasting, bring great benefits to the worshipper first, then to his/her family, community, and society at large, as will be discussed in Part II of this book.
Likewise, if we think about God’s prohibitions, we will find out that these aim at shielding people from committing sins, which otherwise lead to their misery, suffering, and pain, in this lower life, before reaching the hereafter.
Verse 2: 195 provides examples of such commands and prohibitions. Allah, praise to Him, commands people to spend on others who are less fortunate, to do their best in performing the good deeds, and avoid causing their own destruction, with their own hands.
وَأَنفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَلَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ ۛ وَأَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ (البقرة ، 2: 195).
Spend in the way of Allah and do not cast into (your) destruction with your own hands. Do I’hsan behaviors (Be good doers); Allah loves the good doers (Al-Baqara, 2: 195).
When the wealthy spend on the poor, and the haves on the have-nots, they spread love, compassion, and solidarity among relatives, neighbors, community members, and society as a whole. The feeling of happiness, then, is not limited to the recipient only, but it also reaches the giver, who enjoys a great feeling of happiness, for his/her ability to give to others and benefit them, and for the expressions of love and gratitude he/she receives from them.
Verse 2: 195 also includes God’s command of I’hsan, which is worshipping Allah while knowing that He sees us, even if we do not see Him, as we are taught by the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him. This means that we need to do our best in performing as many good deeds as we can. This also includes saying good words, smiling to people, giving advice, volunteering to help the needy, and good treatment of others. When such I’hsan behavior spreads among people, it also spreads stability, security, love, and happiness among them. 
Allah, praise to Him, also prohibits us to do anything which may lead us to harm or destroy ourselves, because He is the Merciful, who wants us to live in happiness, in this lower life, before reaching the everlasting happiness in the hereafter. Examples of what some people do, which may lead to their destruction with their own hands, include smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, abusing drugs, gambling, committing zina (premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse), and accepting this promiscuous behavior.
These deviant behaviors lead to misery, suffering, pain, and fatal diseases in many cases. Consequently, these behaviors deprive the perpetrators of the happiness they can enjoy if they obey their Creator, Who has warned them against that in verses 5: 90 and 17: 32.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (المائدة ، 5: 90).
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, (sacrificing on) stone alters, and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Shaytan (Satan). So, avoid it, that you may be successful (Al-Ma-ida, 5: 90).
وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَىٰ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا (الإسراء ، 17: 32).
And do not approach zina (premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse). Indeed, it is ever a great sin and an evil way (Al-Issra, 17: 32).
In the United States, for example, about 480,000 people die every year as a result of various types of cancer, due to smoking tobacco. About 88,000 more die as a result of diseases, traffic accidents, and cruelty due to the use of alcoholic beverages. In addition, these addicts inflict enormous pains on themselves and on their families, before they die. This includes loss of productivity, physical abuse, sexual assaults, and rapes. Moreover, smokers and alcoholic patients cause the largest burden on the health care system, which costs the American society hundreds of billions of dollars every year. Addiction to gambling is also as harmful to the gambler, his/her family, and society in general. It diminishes the capabilities of the human self and causes a great loss in time, energy, and productivity for the addict and for society as well. 
The spread of zina (premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse), and accepting it, has brought enormous calamities and various types of pain and suffering to the involved individuals, their families, and society at large. Infidelity has been cited as the major cause of divorce, which is the fate of about half of the marriages in the United States, each year. Consequently, children of divorce suffer from living with only one of their biological parents, which may lead to psychological and behavioral problems at home, school, and society as a whole. Tolerance for premarital sexual activity, has led to the highest rates of teenage pregnancy, which are unprecedented in the human society since the agricultural revolution, six thousand years ago. If a teenager aborts her pregnancy, she may suffer from psychological problems, such as depression, or physical problems, such as infertility. If she does not abort it, she is more likely to live in a lower standard of living, as a result of dropping out of school to work, in order to spend on herself and her child or children. Finally, multiple sexual partners has been associated with the spread of various types of sexually-transmitted diseases, many of which lead to infertility or even to death, but all of which lead to suffering, pain, and loss of productivity for the individual, family, and society as a whole. 
Thus, obedience to God, by observing His commands, leads people to enjoy a good quality of life, which is happiness. However, disobedience to Him leads to suffering, pain, and unhappiness, here during people’s lower life, before they reach the hereafter. Verse 2: 177 mentions some of the good deeds of righteousness and piety, which bring happiness in this lower life and everlasting happiness in the hereafter, as follows:
لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّـهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ (البقرة ، 2: 177).
Righteousness is not whether you face towards the east or the west. But righteousness is to believe in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets; and to give wealth, however cherished, to relatives, the orphans, the needy, the destitute traveler, the beggars, and to free slaves. (The righteous are also those) who establish prayers and pay the ordained charity (zakat); who are true to their promise when they have promised; who are patient in misfortune and hardship and during the time of courage. Such are the truthful; such are the righteous (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).
Audio-Visual Records on the Day of Reckoning
When people stand before their Creator, on the Day of Reckoning, they will be given their books, which record all their words and deeds, during their first life on Earth. They will be surprised that even the smallest of their deeds are recorded in these books, as mentioned in verses 86: 4 and 99: 7-8.
إِن كُلُّ نَفْسٍ لَّمَّا عَلَيْهَا حَافِظٌ (الطارق ، 86: 4).
There is a record keeper over (charged with) every (human) self (Al-Tariq, 86: 4).
The believers will be happy that their good deeds are recorded for them but the criminals will regret seeing their bad deeds are also recorded for them, as we are told in verses 3: 30 and 18: 49.
يَوْمَ تَجِدُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا عَمِلَتْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ مُّحْضَرًا وَمَا عَمِلَتْ مِن سُوءٍ تَوَدُّ لَوْ أَنَّ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَهُ أَمَدًا بَعِيدًا ۗ (آل عمران ، 3: 30).
(On that) Day, every (human) self will find what it has done of good present (before it), and (will also find) what it has done of evil, (for which) it will wish if there was a long time separating it from its evil deeds (Al-'Imran, 3: 30).
وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ فَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا فِيهِ وَيَقُولُونَ يَا وَيْلَتَنَا مَالِ هَـٰذَا الْكِتَابِ لَا يُغَادِرُ صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً إِلَّا أَحْصَاهَا وَوَجَدُوا مَا عَمِلُوا حَاضِرًا وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا (الكهف ، 18: 49).
And the book (of deeds) will be placed (given to each person), and you will see the criminals fearful of that which is in it; and they will say, "Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?" And they will find what they did present (to each one of them). And your Lord does injustice to no one (Al-Kahf, 18: 49).
If the criminals deny what they did, then Allah, praise to Him, will show them evidence from their body organs, which were used in committing their evil deeds. Thus, their hands, legs, hearing, sights, and skins will testify against them, as mentioned in verses 36: 65 and 41: 20.
الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَىٰ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنَا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ (يس ، 36: 65).
Today (on the Day of Reckoning), We will set a seal on their mouths, and their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to (all) that, which they earned (did) (Ya Seen, 36: 65).
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا مَا جَاءُوهَا شَهِدَ عَلَيْهِمْ سَمْعُهُمْ وَأَبْصَارُهُمْ وَجُلُودُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (فصلت ، 41: 20).
When they reach the (Fire), their hearing, their sight, and their skins will bear witness against them, to all that they did (Fussilat, 41: 20).
In previous centuries, it should have been hard for people to imagine how their voices and deeds can be recorded and saved in a book, or a record. However, this has become a normal thing to do since the start of radio and television broadcasting. Media units routinely record people’s voices and images and broadcast them around the clock. Even the average person is capable of doing that by using cameras, computers, CDs, and smart phones. So, if we, as humans, have been capable of doing that, then it should be a given that it is easier for the Creator, praise to Him, to have His angels record people’s deeds, and to make these records available to them on the Day of Reckoning, on which He does not do injustice to anybody.
Another way to understand how people’s voices, images, and deeds can be captured and recorded, even after their death, is through the electromagnetic waves, which are produced by their actions. These are permanent records, which can be captured in space, from certain locations in the universe. The evidence for the feasibility of this to happen is the fact that when we see a star, it does not mean that it is still in the same location, which we see it in. Actually, it should have left its location a long time ago but we’re capable to capture its image right now, from our location in the universe. This scientific fact is mentioned in verses 56: 75-76 of the Holy Quran. It follows that our voices, images, and deeds can be captured somewhere in the universe and can be given to us as records, on the Day of Reckoning. 
فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِمَوَاقِعِ النُّجُومِ ﴿٧٥﴾ وَإِنَّهُ لَقَسَمٌ لَّوْ تَعْلَمُونَ عَظِيمٌ ﴿٧٦﴾ (الواقعة ، 56: 75-76).
I swear by the locations of the stars, (75) and it is a mighty oath, if you could know (76) (Al-Waqi’a, 56: 75-76).
Thus, the honorable angels record all of people’s words and deeds. Then, these records will be saved in certain destinations, after death, as we are told by verse 6: 67. On the Last Day, the human self will return to be paired with its body, as mentioned in verse 81: 7. Finally, people will receive their records, to be ready for reckoning.
لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ۬ مُّسۡتَقَرٌّ۬وَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ (الأنعام ، 6: 67).
For every bit of news (information), there is a destination (to be saved in), and you will know it (Al-An'am, 6: 67).
وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ (التكوير ، 81: 7).
And when the (human) selves are paired (with their bodies) (Al-Takweer, 81: 7).
Verse 6: 67 also prophesized that we would know how people’s words and actions can be recorded and kept safe, to be shown again at any time after that. This prophecy has been fulfilled in our time, as we have been capable of capturing human actions, in voice and images. We are also capable of broadcasting these through radio and TV electromagnetic waves throughout the terrestrial and extraterrestrial space.
The main idea here is that if humans have been capable of accomplishing that, then it should be a given that Almighty Allah, praise to Him, and His angels are more capable of capturing the human soul, including the self, and returning it to its body, on the Last Day.
Reckoning on the Basis of Obedience or Disobedience to God's Commands
The two concepts of good and evil are not left to people to define. Otherwise, they may never agree on what constitutes each one of them. Allah, praise to Him, revealed His teachings about these concepts through the messages He sent to guide humanity. These messages were delivered by God’s messengers throughout human history. The Holy Quran mentions names of 25 Prophets and Messengers of God but verses 4: 164 and 40: 78 tell us that there were other Messengers who are not mentioned. 
A Messenger was different from a Prophet in that he was given a message from God to deliver it to people. Examples of Messengers include Noo’h (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Moussa (Moses), ‘Eissa (Jesus), and Mu’hammed, who had a strong will in their persistence to deliver their messages despite the great dangers they faced, peace and blessing of Allah be upon all of them.
However, a Prophet received messages from God to teach people and remind them of the message of a Messenger who came before him. Examples of Prophets include Sulayman (Solomon), Elysa’ (Elisha), Dhul Kifl, Younus (Johah), Zakariya, and Ya’hya (John), peace and blessings of Allah be upon them. Both the Messengers and Prophets were supported with prophecies and miracles, to convince people that they had God’s support for their missions.
God's messages to humanity, through His messengers, include His commands, which aim at spreading good behavior and happiness among people in this life, and promise everlasting happiness in the hereafter. God’s messages also include His prohibitions, which aim at saving them from falling into evil behaviors and their harmful consequences in this life, and punishment in the hereafter. Allah summarized these meanings in verse 16: 90, which shows that He commands what’s good and forbids evil, as follows:
إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ (النحل ، 16: 90).
Indeed, Allah orders
justice, good conduct, and giving to relatives; and forbids immorality, bad
conduct, and transgression. He admonishes you, so that perhaps you will
remember (Al-Na’hl, 16: 90).
Thus, there is an association between obedience to God and happiness in this life and in the hereafter. Likewise, there is an association between disobedience to Him and suffering in this life and in the hereafter.
Obedience to God has been mentioned as associated with the great winning, in verse 4: 13; with a high-ranking status in Paradise, in verse 4: 69; with winning, in verse 24: 52; with the greatest winning, in verse 33: 71; and with entering Paradise gardens in verse 48: 17.
Disobedience to God
has been mentioned as associated with painful punishment, in verse 48: 17;
with humiliating punishment, in verse 4: 14; with being clearly lost, in
verse 33: 36; and with punishment in the Hellfire, in verse 72: 23.
The Spirit (rou'h, رُوح) is a characteristic of God, which He blew in the first cell, giving life to all living beings. God's Spirit has also been blown in humans, in particular, enabling their souls to include the morality scale (the self, nafs, نَفْس), in addition to the capabilities of existence (life) and the acquisition of knowledge (the mind), which humans share in different degrees with other living beings.
The word "Spirit” (roo'h, رُوح), is mentioned 21 times, in 20 verses of the Holy Quran. It refers to a characteristic of God and His commands, which are carried by the Senior Angel, Jibril, and other angels, to implement God’s will on humans. However, the only knowledge we have about God’s Spirit is what He told us, and that is little, as stated in the above-mentioned verse 17: 85 of the Holy Quran.
The Holy Quran refers to Jibril, peace be to him, in particular, as the Spirit, the Trusted Spirit, and the Spirit of the Holy, as mentioned in verses 78: 85, 26: 193, and 16: 102. However, verse 16:2 refers to angels (in plural), as the ones who descend with the Spirit of God’s command on whom He wills among His worshippers.
يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ صَفًّا ۖ لَّا يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَقَالَ صَوَابًا (النباً ، 78: 38).
The Day that the Spirit (Jibril) and the angels will stand in rows, they will not speak except for one whom the Beneficent (the Most Merciful) permits, and he will say what is correct (Al-Naba’, 78: 38).
نَزَلَ بِهِ ٱلرُّوحُ ٱلۡأَمِينُ (الشورى ، 26: 193).
The Trusted Spirit (Jibril) came down with it (Al-Shu'ara, 26: 193).
قُلۡ نَزَّلَهُ ۥ رُوحُ ٱلۡقُدُسِ مِن رَّبِّكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ (النحل ، 16: 102).
Say the Spirit of the Holy (Jibril) has brought it (the revelation) down from your Lord in truth” (Al-Na'hl, 16: 102).
يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ (النحل ، 16: 2).
He sends down the angels, with the Spirit of His command, upon whom He wills of His worshippers, (telling them): "Warn that there is no deity except Me; so be mindful of Me."(al-Na’hl, 16: 2).
The mind is the second component of the soul, after the capability of life. It is represented by a software program, which enables the living organism to collect and process information for its own benefit. Thus, the mind contains the body of knowledge an organism acquires in its entire life, through its senses and through the synthetic analysis of the acquired knowledge.
The human mind is different and distinguished
in that the brain, which houses it, is
proportionally larger than in other mammals (in brain/body ratio). It's also
denser and more complex in its components than brains of other living
beings on Earth. It
contains nervous structures, reinforced communication networks, and other
forms of communication among its nervous cells, which are not found in any
animal on the Planet.
This means that there’s a match between the mental capabilities of an organism and its brain structure, which also means that cognition is a reflection of the materialistic capabilities of the brain. This explains why humans are more capable of the comprehension of their surroundings, more capable in the storage of information, and faster in remembering, thinking about, processing, and using such information, as discussed in Chapter 4 of this book.
The Arabic word mind (‘aql, عقل) does not appear in the Holy Quran as a noun in the singular form. Rather, its verb (‘aqala عَقَلَ) is used instead, meaning to understand, comprehend, and distinguish. It also means to tie, tighten, control, or restrict. Thus, minding or reasoning means subjecting one’s thinking to known restrictions, rules, laws, and controls in order for one’s behavior to become as educated, safe, wise, and intelligent as possible.
This verb appears 49 times in the Holy Quran,
in five different forms, which are as follows: ‘aqalouh (they reasoned it) in
verse 2: 75, na’qil (we reason) in verse 67: 10, ya’qiluha (he reasons it) in
verse 29: 43, ta’qiloon (you all reason) in verse 2: 44 and 23 other verses,
and ya’qiloon (they reason) in verse 36: 68 and 21 other verses, as in the
أَفَتَطۡمَعُونَ أَن يُؤۡمِنُواْ لَكُمۡ وَقَدۡ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ۬ مِّنۡهُمۡ يَسۡمَعُونَ ڪَلَـٰمَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ ۥ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمۡ يَعۡلَمُونَ (البقرة ، 2: 75).
Do you (people of Faith) hope that they will believe in you, while a party of them used to hear the Words of Allah (the Torah), then they would distort them knowingly, after they had reasoned (understood) them" (Al-Baqara, 2: 75).
وَقَالُواْ لَوۡ كُنَّا نَسۡمَعُ أَوۡ نَعۡقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ (المُلك ، 67: 10).
They will further say: "Had we listened or reasoned, we would not have been among the companions of the Blazing Fire! (Al-Mulk, 67: 10).
وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ ۖ وَمَا يَعْقِلُهَا إِلَّا الْعَالِمُونَ (العنكبوت ، 29: 43).
And these examples (which) We present to the people, but none will reason (understand) them except those of knowledge (Al-‘Ankaboot, 29: 43).
أَتَأۡمُرُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ بِٱلۡبِرِّ وَتَنسَوۡنَ أَنفُسَكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ تَتۡلُونَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَۚ أَفَلَا تَعۡقِلُونَ (البقرة ، 2: 44).
Do you enjoin right conduct on the people and forget (to practice it) yourselves, and (yet) you recite the Scripture? Do you not reason?" (Al-Baqara, 2: 44).
وَمَن نُّعَمِّرْهُ نُنَكِّسْهُ فِي الْخَلْقِ أَفَلَا يَعْقِلُونَ (يس ، 36: 68).
And he to whom We grant long life We reverse in creation. Do they not reason (understand)? (Ya-Seen, 36: 68).
The Holy Quran refers to the mind by using its
essential characteristic, as the essence or the core of the human being. In
particular, it is used to describe believers in 15 verses, as the ones
with the minds (al-albab, .(ألألبابThis
praise of the believers, as the reasoning ones, has been mentioned in 15
verses. Here are three examples, which include verses 2: 197, 2: 269, and 3: 190.
وَٱتَّقُونِ يَـٰٓأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (البقرة ، 2: 197).
O you who have (reasoning) minds, avoid my anger (or my punishment)" (Al-Baqara, 2: 197).
وَمَا يَذَّڪَّرُ إِلَّآ أُوْلُواْ ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (البقرة 2: 269).
Only those with (reasoning) minds will remember (and understand God's message)" (Al-Baqara, 2: 269).
إِنَّ فِى خَلۡقِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَلۡبَـٰبِ (آل عمران ، 3: 190).
In the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are signs for those with (reasoning) minds" (Al-Imran, 3: 190).
The third component of the human soul is represented by the morality software, which God blew from His Spirit in humans, thus distinguishing them from other organisms, as pointed in Chapter 4. It enables humans to create the human self (personality), through the interaction with others, as well as through successive decision-making processes and information analyses, on the basis of the mentally-acquired knowledge.
Two major ideal types of the human “self” have been identified for thousands of years, which are the good and the evil types. However, logically speaking, a spectrum of possibilities lies between the two types.
The Holy Quran tells us that God has given the human being the freedom to choose, through his/her inherent ability to differentiate between good and evil deeds, and through his/her ability to choose between them, as expressed in verse 90: 10.
، 90: 10) .
And We guided him the two paths (of good and evil)?" (Al-Balad, 90: 10).
The Holy Quran is very specific about the contrast between the two choices and the consequences of the human deeds. In Verses 91: 7-10, Allah, praise to Him, says that when He has fashioned the human self (by blowing His Spirit in the human soul), He has equipped it with the ability to choose to be pious or deviant, following the straight path or going astray from it. Consequently, the winner in this life and in the Hereafter is the one who purifies the self with good deeds, and the failure is the one who immerses it in bad deeds and corruption.
وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا ﴿٧﴾ فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا ﴿٨﴾ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا ﴿٩﴾ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا ﴿١٠﴾ (الشمس ، 91: 7-10).
And (by) the self and He who fashioned it, (7) And inspired it (with its) deviance and its righteousness. (8) He has succeeded, who purifies it, (9) And he has failed, who immerses it (in bad deeds and corruption). (10) (Al-Shams, 91: 7-10).
It is noteworthy that modern social sciences have discovered this fact about the human self, which has been articulated in the Holy Quran, more than 14 centuries ago. Since the beginning of the 20th Century, sociologists and psychologists reached the conclusion that the human self (personality) has two main components, one representing the moral values and norms of society (including religious teachings), and the other representing the self and body interests alone. Thus, the normal human being is the one who seeks the satisfaction of his/her body needs and self-desires, in a way that does not contradict with the prevailing social values and norms. As such, the human self (personality) develops and evolves, and its awareness of itself and of others increases, through the continuous interaction between its two components, as well as between the human being and his/her social and physical surroundings.
Death of the Body and Completion of the Self Record
Allah, praise to Him, teaches us that there is a difference between the two concepts of death (mowt) and completion of the self-record (wafah). Death happens when the life software stops working, as a result of a stop in the work of the brain and the heart. Thus, death means the end of life for the body, with the completion of the deeds of the human self, in this lower life. However, wafah can happen to the dead and the living body alike. It happens when the angels stop recording the deeds of the human self, whether the body is still alive, while asleep, or at its death, as we learn from verses 39: 42 and 6: 60-61.
اللَّـهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا ۖ فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَىٰ عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَىٰ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (الزمر ، 39: 42).
Allah completes records of the selves at the time of their death, and those that do not die (He completes their records) during their sleep. Then, He keeps those for which He has decreed death and releases the others, for a specified term. Indeed, in that are signs for a people who give thought (Al-Zumar, 39: 42).
وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿٦٠﴾
وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَفَظَةً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ ﴿٦١﴾ (الأنعام ، 6: 60-61).
And it is He who completes your records by night and knows what you have committed by day. Then, He revives you therein, that a specified term may be fulfilled. Then, to Him will be your return. Then, He will inform you about what you used to do. (60)
And He is the Subjugator (Subduer) over His worshippers (creation), and He sends over you record keepers (angels), until when death comes to one of you, Our messengers complete his record, and they do not leave out (any detail of it) (61) (Al-An'am, 6: 60-61).
When death happens to the human body and the record of the self is completed and taken over by angels, they transfer the record to the Creator’s depository, to be kept there, until the Last Day, as we learn from verse 6: 67.
لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ۬ مُّسۡتَقَرٌّ۬وَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ (الأنعام ، 6: 67).
For every bit of news (information), there is a destination (to be kept in), and you will know it (Al-An'am, 6: 67).
Thus, the two verses refer to two situations in which a person's record is completed and taken over by angels. The first is during his/her sleep, but the record will be reopened when a person wakes up. The second is a final completion of a person's record of his/her lower (first) life on Earth, when he/she dies.
Some Messengers of Allah, however, were lifted alive to heavens to save them from the physical death of the body. As a result, their records on Earth were completed though they did not die. An example of such a case was Jesus Christ, peace to him, who had "wafah" (completion of his record on Earth) but not mowt (physical death of the human body). This was also the case of Idrees, peace to him, as well as the case of martyrs, whose life on Earth ends but they are alive in heavens, as stated in Verses 3: 55, 4: 157, 19: 56-57, and 3: 169.
إِذْ قَالَ اللَّـهُ يَا عِيسَىٰ إِنِّي مُتَوَفِّيكَ وَرَافِعُكَ إِلَيَّ وَمُطَهِّرُكَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَجَاعِلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوكَ فَوْقَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ فِيمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ (آل عمران ، 3: 55).
(Mention) when Allah said, "O 'Eissa (Jesus), I am completing your record (on Earth), lifting you to Me (in heaven), purifying you from those who disbelieved, and making those who followed you (dominant) over those who disbelieved, until the Day of Rising (Resurrection).” Then (addressing people), to Me is your return, and I will judge between you concerning that in which you used to differ" (Al-'Imran, 3: 55).
Verse 4: 157 states that 'Eissa, peace to him, was not killed, thus confirming that what happened to him was wafah (completion of record), not mowt (death).
وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّـهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَـٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا (النساء ، 4: 157).
And for their saying: "We killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the Messenger of God;" (here is the answer): They neither killed him nor crucified him, but it so appeared to them. Those who disagreed in the matter are only (lost) in doubt. They have no knowledge about it, other than conjecture. Certainly, they did not kill him (Al-Nissa, 4: 157).
وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ أَمْوَاتًا ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ (آل عمران ، 3: 169).
And do not count those who have been killed in the path of Allah (the martyrs) as dead. Rather, they are alive, near their Lord, receiving provision (Al-'Imran, 3: 169).
Return of the Self to its Body
The importance of the self-record is that it will be used as the basis for holding it accountable for its performance, during its lower (first) life on Earth, as stated in verses 74: 38 and 81: 14.
كُلُّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتۡ رَهِينَةٌ (المدثر ، 74: 38).
Every self will be hostage (accountable) to what it has earned (Al-Muddathir, 74: 38).
عَلِمَتۡ نَفۡسٌ۬ مَّآ أَحۡضَرَتۡ (التكوير ، 81: 14).
A self will know what it has brought (Al-Takweer, 81: 14).
during the Last Day, the human body is resurrected, as we know from
verse 23: 16 (by cloning it from its coccyx, as explained by the Messenger
of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him). Then, the self will be transferred
back to its resurrected body, as verse 81: 7 tells us, in order to be able
to communicate with its Creator, during the reckoning.
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ تُبْعَثُونَ (المؤمنون ، 23: 16).
Then, you will be resurrected on the Day of Rising (Al-Muminoon, 23: 16).
وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ (التكوير ، 81: 7).
And when the selves are paired (with the bodies) (Al-Takweer, 81: 7).
Finally, the self will be
rewarded or punished on basis of its choices and deeds, during its lower
(first) life performance on Earth, as mentioned in verses 79: 34-41, as
فَإِذَا جَاءَتِ الطَّامَّةُ الْكُبْرَىٰ ﴿٣٤﴾ يَوْمَ يَتَذَكَّرُ الْإِنسَانُ مَا سَعَىٰ ﴿٣٥﴾ وَبُرِّزَتِ الْجَحِيمُ لِمَن يَرَىٰ ﴿٣٦﴾ فَأَمَّا مَن طَغَىٰ ﴿٣٧﴾ وَآثَرَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا ﴿٣٨﴾ فَإِنَّ الْجَحِيمَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ ﴿٣٩﴾ وَأَمَّا مَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ وَنَهَى النَّفْسَ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ ﴿٤٠﴾ فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ هِيَ الْمَأْوَىٰ ﴿٤١﴾ (النازعات ، 79: 34-41).
But when there comes the Greatest Calamity (of the Last Day) - (34)
The Day when the human being will remember that for which he strove, (35)
And the Hellfire will be exposed for (all) those who see - (36)
So, as for he who transgressed (37)
And preferred the lower life (first life on Earth), (38)
Then, indeed, the Hellfire will be (his) refuge. (39)
But as for he who feared the position of his Lord and prevented the self from the (unlawful) inclination, (40)
Then, indeed, Paradise will be (his) refuge. (41) (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 34-41).
Summary and Conclusion
The concepts of the Spirit, soul, mind, self, and happiness are closely related in the Holy Quran. They are interconnected, in the sense that understanding them individually cannot be complete without understanding how they are related to each other.
God’s Spirit is the source of the human soul, which includes the capabilities of the human existence (life), acquisition of knowledge (the mind), and morality (the self). In particular, as human beings, we are elated over a lot of God’s creations because of our ability to collect, process, and use data in a good way, by choice. However, He warned those, who use it in an evil way, to punish them for that in the Hereafter.
The human body is just an instrument that incubates and sustains the brain, which houses the human mind, from which the self develops and evolves throughout a person's lifetime on Earth.
Allah, praise to Him, created the moral and wise human (homo sapien sapien) by the installation of the morality software from His Spirit into the human DNA. This is what allows and enables the human self to start a life-long process of data processing and decision making while having the ability to differentiate between good and evil.
When the body dies, as a result of old age, sickness, or accidental injury, the wafah takes place too. This means that the record of the human soul, including the human self and its decisions and deeds, is completed (ended) by angels.
In the Hereafter, the self is going to be judged on the basis of its performance during its first life on Earth. If it is obedient to God in its behavior, it will be living in happiness in this life and in the hereafter. But, if the human self is disobedient to its Creator, it suffers in this life and in the hereafter.
Thus, goodness is obedience to God and evil is disobedience to Him.
It follows that whatever happens to human beings in their lower (first) life is going to be good for them in the hereafter, as long as they are obedient to Allah, praise to Him, even if they become poor, get sick, or killed unjustly.
It is good because their ultimate destination is an eternal happy life in Paradise. They have to work as hard as they can in their pursuit of happiness, during their first life on Earth, but they have to observe God in everything they say or do.
You may get some or all of the results you want to achieve here in this life (such as wealth, power, prestige, reproductive activities, offspring, material belongings etc.) but there's a possibility that you may not get what you are pursuing because of circumstances beyond your control.
Thus, success or failure, in the Islamic sense, is not necessarily in the achievement of goals, or the lack there of. Rather, it is in how you conduct yourself during the process of pursuing your endeavors, goals, wants, and desires.
 For more information about the concepts of the Spirit, soul, mind, and self, see the introduction to Chapter 8 and Chapter 4, particularly Footnotes 6, 7, and 8.
 Though the author is solely responsible for the translation of the meanings of the verses of the Holy Quran mentioned throughout the book, including in this Chapter, he consulted with other translations, particularly those of Saheeh International, Qaribullah & Darwish, and of Yusuf Ali, may Allah reward them for their great works in the service of Islam, Muslims, and humanity.
In Ibn Katheer's interpretation of Verse 17: 85, he mentioned that the Spirit is the source of the self (nafs), and the self is the product of the Spirit and what it gets from the body (the brain), as this author has argued in this book.
 For more information
about Reckoning and Judgment on the Last Day, see Chapter 24,
"The Last Day
and its Four Main Events: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and
"The interval, barrier, between death and resurrection (barzakh), is mentioned in the Holy Quran and ‘Hadith, as follows:
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِ ﴿٩٩﴾ لَعَلِّي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ ۚ كَلَّا ۚ إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا ۖ وَمِن وَرَائِهِم بَرْزَخٌ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ ﴿١٠٠﴾ (المؤمنون ، 23: 99-100).
Until when death comes to one of them (disbelievers), he says, "My Lord, send me back, (99) that I might do righteousness in that which I left behind." No! It is only a word he is saying; and behind them is an interval (barrier (barzakh), until the Day they are resurrected. (100) (Al-Muminoon, 23: 99-100).
عن كعب بن مالك الأنصاري ، رضي الله عنه ، أنه قال ، قال رسول الله ، صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إنَّما نسَمةُ المؤمنِ طائرٌ يُعلَقُ في شجرِ الجنَّةِ ، حتَّى يرجعَ إلى جسدِهِ يَومَ يُبعَثُ" (صححه الألباني ، عن ابن ماجه: 3465).
Ka’b Bin Malik Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him (mAbpwh), said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh) said: “The soul of the believer is a bird hanging on a Paradise tree, until it returns to his/her body, on the Day of Resurrection (authenticated by Al-Albani, Ibn Maja: 3465).
Bin Omar narrated a ‘Hadith, in which his father, mAbpwt both, told him that one day Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to
him, came to the Masjid (Mosque) in Medina, and asked the Messenger of
Allah, pbbuh, several questions, and one of
them was about the meaning of I’hsan. The Messenger of Allah answered
I’hsan is “to worship Allah as if you see Him, because if you do
not see Him, He sees you.”
Here’s the Arabic text of the question and the answer:
Here’s the Arabic text of the question and the answer:
قَالَ: فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ الْإِحْسَانِ؟ قَالَ: أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ ، فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ.
This is recorded as the 17th Nawawi ‘Hadith and Number 60 in Riyadh Al-Sali’heen by Imam Nawawi. It was also recorded by Muslim: 8, Abu Dawood: 4695, Al-Tirmidhi: 2610, Al-Nissa-i: 4990, Ibn Maja: 63, Ahmed: 367, and Ibn Manda: 2.
 Cigarette smoking is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths per year in the United States, including more than 41,000 deaths resulting from second-hand smoke exposure.
This amounts to $170 billion in direct medical costs that could be saved every year if we could prevent youth from starting to smoke and help every person who smokes to quit.
Excessive alcohol use led to approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) each year, in the United States, from 2006 to 2010, shortening the lives of those who died by an average of 30 years. The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion.
Problem gambling is harmful to psychological and physical health. People who live with this addiction may experience depression, migraine, distress, intestinal disorders, and other anxiety-related problems.
 For more information about divorce in general, and about the relationship between divorce and infidelity in the United States, see the author’s two academic papers, which are published at the following two links:
In 2016, The number of live births to unmarried women was 1,569,796. The birth rate for unmarried women was 42.4 births per 1,000 unmarried women, aged 15-44. This represented 39.8% of all births.
In 2014, 652,639 legally-induced abortions were reported to CDC from 49 reporting areas. The abortion rate for 2014 was 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women, aged 15–44 years, and the abortion ratio was 186 abortions per 1,000 live births. Women in their twenties accounted for the majority of abortions in 2014, and throughout the period of analysis.
In 2015, a total of 229,715 babies were born to women aged 15–19 years, for a birth rate of 22.3 per 1,000 women, in this age group.
The following statistics are from the “US Sexually-Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2017,” issued by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), about the three major notifiable STDs: Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
A total of 1,708,569 cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were reported to the CDC, making it the most common notifiable condition in the United States. This case count corresponds to a rate of 528.8 cases per 100,000 people, which was an increase of 6.9%, compared with the rate in 2016.
A total of 555,608 cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC, making it the second most common notifiable condition in the United States. Rates of reported gonorrhea increased by 75.2%, since the historic low in 2009, and increased by 18.6%, since 2016.
A total of 30,644 cases of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis, the most infectious stages of the disease, were reported in the United States, yielding a rate of 9.5 cases per 100,000 people. Since reaching a historic low in 2000 and 2001, the rate of P&S syphilis has increased almost every year, by 10.5% during 2016–2017.
While sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect individuals of all ages, STDs take a particularly heavy toll on young people. CDC estimates that youth ages 15-24 make up just over one quarter of the sexually active population, but account for half of the 20 million new sexually-transmitted infections that occur in the United States each year.
 The fact that when we see a star, it does not mean that it is still in the same location, which we see it in. Actually, it should have left its location a long time ago but we’re capable to capture its image right now, from our location in the universe, as verses 56: 75-76 point to us. For more information about this scientific fact, see the following links:
 The Arabic texts of the two mentioned verses are as follows:
قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ
ۚ (النساء ، 4: 164).
And (We sent) messengers about whom We have related (their stories) to you before, and messengers about whom We have not related to you (Al-Nissa, 4: 164).
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِّن قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُم مَّن قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن لَّمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ ۗ (غافر ، 40: 78).
And We had sent messengers before you. Among them are those (whose stories) We have related to you, and among them are those (whose stories) We have not related to you (Ghafir, 40: 78).
The Holy Quran mentions names of 25 Prophets and Messengers of God. These are Adam, Idrees,* Noo'h (Noah), Hood,* Salih, Ibrahim (Abraham), Loot (Lot), Isma'il (Ishma'il), Is'haq (Isaac), Ya'qoub (Jacob), Yousuf (Joseph), Ayoub (Jobe), Shu'ayb, Moussa (Moses), Haroon (Aaron), Dawood (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Elyas (Elijah), Elyasa' (Elisha), Dhul Kifl, Younus (Jonah), Zakariyah, Ya'hya (John), Al-Messieh Eissa Bin Maryam (The Messiah Jesus, Son of Mary), and Muhammed (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them).
* Some researchers suggested that Idrees and Hood could be the biblically-mentioned Anokh and ‘Aber, respectively. However, this author has no opinion about the accuracy of such suggestions.
 God's commands are the subject of a separate book by this author, titled: "Introduction to Islamic Law, Shari'a, Part I: Prohibition and Don't Do Commands in the Holy Quran."
The numbers of mentioned , about obedience and disobedience to God, are from the search function of the Holy Quran in Arabic, at www.tanzil.net.
The other source this author used for this purpose was "The Holy Quran Index," in Arabic, by Muhammed Fuad Abdul Baqi. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr, 1406 (1986). The Arabic Title is: “Al-Mu’ajam Al-Mufahras Li Alfadh Al-Quran Al-Kareem.” The mentioned verses are as follows:
تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ (النساء ، 4: 13).
These are the limits (set by) Allah, and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens (in Paradise) under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment (Al-Nissa 4: 13).
وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَـٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا (النساء ، 4: 69).
And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor (who include) the Prophets, the saints (the steadfast affirmers of truth), the martyrs, and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions (Al-Nissa 4: 69).
وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَخْشَ اللَّـهَ وَيَتَّقْهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ (النور ، 24: 52).
And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and fears Allah and is conscious of Him - those are the winners (Al-Noor, 24: 52).
وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ فَقَدۡ فَازَ فَوۡزًا عَظِيمًا (الأحزاب ، 33: 71).
“... and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has already won the greatest winning” (Al-A'hzab, 33: 71).
وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا (الفتح ، 48: 17).
And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger - He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoever turns away - He will punish him with a painful punishment (Al-Fat’h, 48: 17).
وَمَن يَعۡصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ ۥ يُدۡخِلۡهُ نَارًا خَـٰلِدً۬ا فِيهَا وَلَهُ ۥ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬ (النساء ، 4: 14).
And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His (God’s) limits – He (God) will admit him to a Fire, everlasting therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment” (Al-Nissa 4: 14).
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ۬ وَلَا مُؤۡمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥۤ أَمۡرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡخِيَرَةُ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِمۡۗ وَمَن يَعۡصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلَـٰلاً۬ مُّبِينً۬ا (الأحزاب ، 33: 36).
It is not fitting for a believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed clearly lost (Al-A'hzab, 33: 36).
إِلَّا بَلَاغًا مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرِسَالَاتِهِ ۚ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَإِنَّ لَهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا (الجن ، 72: 23).
But (I have for you) only a notification from Allah, and His messages. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger - then indeed, for him is the fire of Hell; they will abide therein forever (Al-Jinn, 72: 23).
 God’s Spirit is mentioned in verse 17: 85 twice; in reference to blowing It in Adam, in verses 15: 29 and 38: 72; in the human being, in verse 32: 9; in ‘Eissa (Jesus), in verse 4:171; in Maryam (Mary), in verse 66: 12; in support to believers, in verse 58: 22; and as a command in verses 16: 2, 40: 15, and 42: 52.
The word “Spirit” is also mentioned as a description of the Senior Angel, Jibril (Gabriel), peace to him, as the “Spirit of the Holy,” in verses 2: 87, 2: 253, 5: 110, and 16: 102. He is also described as “Our Spirit” in his mission to Maryam (Mary), in verses 19: 17 and 21: 91. He is further referred to as the “Spirit” in verses 70: 4, 78: 38, and 97: 4. Finally, he is described as the “Trusted Spirit” in verse 26: 193.
 The verb ta’qiloon (you all reason) was mentioned in 24 verses of the Holy Quran, which are: 2: 44, 2: 73, 2: 76, 2: 242, 3: 65, 3: 118, 6: 32, 6: 151, 7: 169, 10: 16, 11: 51, 12: 2, 12: 109, 21: 10, 21: 67, 23: 80, 24: 61, 26: 28, 28: 60, 36: 62, 37: 138, 40: 67, 43: 3, and 57: 17.
The verb ya’qiloon (they reason) was mentioned in 22 verses of the Holy Quran, which are: 2: 164, 2: 170, 2: 171, 5: 103, 8: 22, 10: 42, 10: 100, 13: 4, 16: 12, 16: 67, 22: 46, 25: 44, 29: 35, 29: 63,30: 28, 36: 68, 39: 43, 45: 5, 49: 4, and 59: 14.
God’s praise of the believers, as the "reasoning ones" (the
ones with minds), has
been mentioned in 16 verses of the Holy Quran, which are 2: 179, 2: 197,
2: 269, 3: 7, 3: 19, 5: 100, 12: 111, 13: 19, 14: 52, 38: 29, 38: 43,
39: 9, 39: 18, 39: 21, 40: 54, and 65: 10.
The American sociologist George Herbert
Mead argued that the more roles a person takes up or plays, the more
the growth and development of the self. He also argued that the
human self has two major components. The first is the “I,” which
represents the self and body interests alone (such as
satisfying self-desires and the body physical needs). The second
is the “Me,” which represents the social self, including the learned
moral values and norms of society. The self grows and develops as a
result of the interaction with others and as a result of the
interaction between its two components.
 The American sociologist George Herbert Mead argued that the more roles a person takes up or plays, the more is the growth and development of the self. He also argued that the human self has two major components. The first is the “I,” which represents the self and body interests alone (such as satisfying self-desires and the body physical needs). The second is the “Me,” which represents the social self, including the learned moral values and norms of society. The self grows and develops as a result of the interaction with others and as a result of the interaction between its two components.
Mead, George H. 1934. “Mind, Self and Society,” edited by C. W. Morris. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Likewise, the French psychologist Sigmund Freud agreed with Mead on that the development of the self (or personality, which he called “psyche”) can be seen as a result of the internal interaction between its two components (the pleasure-seeking “Id” and the “Superego” or conscience). Freud also argued that the conflict between these two components of the self may lead a person to to get closer to one of them, on the expense of the other. That’s why the third component of the self, the “Ego,” plays the major role of mediating between the other two components.
Freud, Sigmund. 2010 (1923). “The Ego and the Id.” Pacific Publishing Studio (pacps).
 The Arabic text of the 'Hadith about cloning the human body from its coccyx, on the Day of Rising:
عن أبي هريرة ، رضي الله عنه ، أنه قال ، قال رسول الله ، صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إنَّ في الإنْسانِ عَظْمًا لا تَأْكُلُهُ الأرْضُ أبَدًا ، فيه يُرَكَّبُ يَومَ القِيامَةِ. قالُوا أيُّ عَظْمٍ هُوَ ، يا رَسولَ اللهِ؟ قالَ: عَجْبُ الذَّنَبِ" (مسلم: 2955).
Abu Hurayra, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: "There's one bone in the human being, which never decays in earth. It will be (the seed of) his assembly on the Day of Rising." The (Companions) asked: O Messenger of Allah, which bone is it? He said: "The coccyx" (Muslim: 2955).
 We know from the ‘Hadith that the soul of a believer ascends to Paradise after death, where it hangs on the Paradise trees and stays there until the Day of Resurrection, when the Great Creator permits it to return to its body, to be ready for reckoning. Souls of martyrs also end up in Paradise, but these are alive inside birds, receiving sustenance, eating from the Paradise fruits, and sheltering in golden lanterns hung in the shade of God’s Throne.
Ka’b Al-Ansari, mAbpwh, said that the Prophet, pbbuh, said: “The soul of a believer is a bird hug on the Paradise trees, until it returns to its body on the Day of Resurrection” (Authenticated by Al-Albani, based on Ibn Maja: 3465).
Abdullah, Son of Abbas, mAbpwt both, said that the Prophet, pbbuh, said: “When your brothers were struck (martyred) on the Day (battle) of U’hud, Allah made their souls inside green birds, which comes to the Paradise rivers, eat from its fruits, and shelters in golden lanterns hung in the shade of (God’s) Throne” (Authenticated by Al-Albani as a good ‘Hadith: 3776).
For more details about resurrection and return of the self (as one of the soul components) to its body, see Chapter 24 of this book, “The Last Day and its Four Main Events: The Hour, Resurrection, Reckoning, and Judgment.”
About the Author and the Book:
* The author of this book has
a Ph.D. in Sociology and a Master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology. He was
born in Gaza, Palestine in 1369 Hijriya (1950) but he has been living in the
United States since 1986.
The works of the three renowned Islamic scholars Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, have been used throughout the chapters of this book, as these are the most credited interpretations of the Holy Quran, for their use of 'Hadith, companions' interpretations, and their thorough knowledge of the Arabic language.
يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّـهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّـهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ (الصف ، 61: 8).
They want to extinguish the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah will perfect His light, although the disbelievers dislike it (Al-Saff, 61: 8).
Opinions expressed in various sections are the sole responsibility of their authors and they may not represent Al-Jazeerah's.