Al-Jazeerah: Cross-Cultural Understanding
News, February 2011
Arab Revolution Reaches Bahrain, Protesters Demand Sweeping Political Reforms
Bahrain protesters urge more pressure on rulers
By HADEEL AL-SHALCHI Associated Press
Feb 16, 2011, 7:30 AM EST
MANAMA, Bahrain (AP) --
Protesters demanding sweeping political reforms from Bahrain's rulers held their ground Wednesday in an Egypt-style occupation of the capital's landmark square, staging a third day of demonstrations that have brought unprecedented pressure in one of Washington's most strategic allies in the Gulf.
Security forces have pulled back sharply - apparently on orders to ease tensions - after clashes that left at least two people dead and dozens injured. Police helicopters, however, flew low over a major funeral procession for one of the victims in which mourners called him a "martyr" and pledged more protests in the island nation - home to the U.S. Navy's 5th Fleet.
Thousands of people spent the night in a makeshift tent camp in Manama's Pearl Square, which was swarmed by demonstrators a day earlier. One demonstrator used a bullhorn to urge protesters to remain until their demands are met, as the Arab wave for change takes hold in the Gulf.
The protests began Monday as a cry for the country's Sunni monarchy to loosen its grip, including hand-picking most top government posts, and open more opportunities for the country's majority Shiites, who have long complained of being blocked from decision-making roles.
But the uprising's demands have steadily reached further. Many protesters are calling for the government to provide more jobs and better housing and free all political detainees. Increasingly, protesters are also chanting slogans to wipe away the entire ruling dynasty that has led Bahrain for more than 200 years.
Social networking websites were abuzz with calls to press ahead with the protests as well as insults from presumed government backers calling the demonstrators traitors and agents of Shiite powerhouse Iran.
The head of the largest Shiite political bloc, Sheik Ali Salman, said there are no demands for an Islamic role in politics.
"We are not looking for a religious government like Iran's, but we demand a civil government" that represents Shiites and Sunnis, he told a news conference.
The group, Al Wefaq, has 18 seats in the 40-member parliament, but it boycotting the chamber to protest the violence against demonstrators.
Bahrain's state TV gave limited reports on the protests.
The pan-Arab broadcaster Al-Jazeera, founded by the emir in nearby Qatar, also gave sporadic coverage. That compares with nearly round-the-clock attention to Egypt's turmoil, suggesting worry by Qatar's Sunni rulers about the unrest coming to their doorstep.
Britain's minister for Middle East and North Africa, Alistair Burt, said he "concerned by the reports of excessive use of force by police" in Bahrain.
"I call on all sides to exercise restraint and refrain from violence," said Burt.
U.S. State Department spokesman P.J. Crowley said Tuesday the Obama administration is "very concerned" about violence against protesters.
"The United States welcomes the government of Bahrain's statements that it will investigate these deaths, and that it will take legal action against any unjustified use of force by Bahraini security forces," Crowley said. "We urge that it follow through on these statements as quickly as possible."
Bahrain is a linchpin to the U.S. military framework in the Gulf. The 5th Fleet base is considered one of the Pentagon's major counterweights against Iran's growing military reach in the region.
Although Bahrain is sandwiched between two of OPEC's heavyweights, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, it has limited oil resources and depends heavily on its role as a regional financial hub and playground for Saudis, who can drive over a causeway to enjoy Bahrain's Western-style bars, hotels and beaches.
On Tuesday, Bahrain's King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa made a rare nationwide TV address to offer condolences for the deaths, pledge an investigation into the killings and promise to push ahead with reforms that include loosening state controls on the media and Internet.
But the funeral procession Wednesday for a 31-year-old man, Fadhel al-Matrook, quickly turned political. Mourners chanted for the immediate resignation of Prime Minister Sheik Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa.
Al-Matrook was killed Tuesday as police tried to disperse people gathered for the funeral march of the first victim to die in the unrest. Both were Shiites, feeding the resentment in a community that represents 70 percent of Bahrain's 500,000 citizens but has long alleged systematic discrimination.
A wave of arrests last year against Shiite activists touched off riots and protest marches. But authorities are moving ahead with a highly sensitive trial of 25 Shiites accused of plotting against the ruling system. The next court session is scheduled for Feb. 24.
In the past week, Bahrain's rulers have tried to defuse calls for reform by promising nearly $2,700 for each family and pledging to loosen state controls on the media.
Similar concessions have been made by leaders in the Gulf to try to pre-empt protests.
In Oman, the ruling Sultan Qaboos Bin Said announced Wednesday an increase in the minimum monthly salary for private sector workers from 140 rials ($365) to 200 rials ($520). Last month, the sultan met with U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to discuss the growing political unrest in the Arab world.
Britain's Foreign Secretary William Hague visited Bahrain for talks last week.
Bahrain protesters rally for third day
By Cynthia Johnston and Frederik Richter
MANAMA | Wed Feb 16, 2011 10:32am EST
MANAMA (Reuters) -
Protesters in Bahrain, emboldened by revolts that have toppled Arab rulers in Tunisia and Egypt, poured into the Gulf island kingdom's capital on Wednesday to mourn a demonstrator killed in clashes with security forces.
A crowd estimated at more 1,000 people joined a long and winding Shi'ite funeral procession for the man, shot dead on Tuesday when fighting erupted at the burial of another protester.
Around 2,000 others were camped out at a major road junction in the center of Manama, hoping to emulate the rallies on Cairo's Tahrir Square and demanding a change of government in Bahrain, where a Sunni family rules over a Shi'ite majority.
The protests, in their third day, are some of the most serious since widespread Shi'ite unrest of the 1990s, and appear to be driven by familiar complaints of economic hardship, lack of political freedom and sectarian discrimination.
"The people demand the fall of the regime!" protesters chanted as men pounded their chests in rhythm, a mourning gesture which is distinctive to the Shi'ite branch of Islam.
King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa has expressed condolences to relatives of the two dead men, and said a committee would investigate. The Interior Ministry has promised legal action if it finds police used unjustifiable force.
Though itself only a minor oil exporter, Bahrain's stability is important for neighboring Saudi Arabia, where oilfields are home to an oppressed Shi'ite minority.
Bahrain is also a hub for banking and financial services in the Gulf and home to the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet.
PRIME MINISTER SINCE 1971
Protesters, their tone hardened by the deaths of two Shi'ite men within 24 hours, want the removal of the prime minister, Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, who has governed since British rule ended in 1971.
For now, they have not sought change at the very top -- his nephew King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa has ultimate control over the 1.3 million people in Bahrain, half of them foreigners.
"We are requesting our rights in a peaceful way," said Bakr Akil, a 20 year-old student. He wore a sheet stained with red ink that he said showed his willingness to sacrifice for freedom.
Women dressed in black abaya cloaks followed the procession with their own chants calling for peace and Bahraini unity.
Mourners tossed stems of sweet-smelling basil onto the car ferrying the cotton-wrapped body, draped in a green Islamic banner, through winding alleyways toward a small cemetery for burial. Black flags of mourning flew.
Bahrain's Shi'ites, whose branch of Islam is found mostly across Gulf waters in Iran and among Arabs in Iraq and Lebanon, complain they are shut out of public housing, healthcare and government jobs and also that their rulers have tried to shift the demographic balance by making Sunni immigrants citizens.
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