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Haj, Pilgrimage, Rituals in details

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful


On Arrival

1. Ihram at Meeqat for those who have not put on Ihram earlier.

2. (i) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah (Declaration of Intention) and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj and Umrah combined (Qiran) or

ii) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Umrah only (Tamattu) or

iii) Two Rakat Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj only (Ifraad).

3. Tawaf Qudoom in Makkah (Arrival Tawaf).

4. Two Rakats Nafil /Drink Zamzam.

5. Sai’e

i) For Qiran maintain Ihram until Hajj.

ii) For Tamathu one can come out of Ihram.

8th Dhul Hijjah

6.Ihram from Makkah

i) For those residing in Makkah, Ihram is from place of residence.

7. Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah for Hajj and Talbiyah.

8. Arrival in Mina before Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers and Fajr Prayer of 9 Dhul Hijjah.

9th Dhul Hijjah

9. After Fajr prayer, arrival at Arafat.

10. Zuhr, Asr shortened and combined in Nimra Mosque or wherever the tents have been put up in the camps.

11. Standing at Arafat, after sunset, departure to Muzdalifah without performing Maghrib prayer at Arafat.

12. Arrival at Muzdalifah, delayed Maghrib and Isha prayers with one Azan and two Iqamats combined. (Isha shortened)

13. Collect pebbles for Rami of Jamra.. Pebbles may also be collected in Mina.

10th Dhul Hijjah

14. Arrival at Mina after Fajr prayer in Muzdalifah.

15. Lapidation (Rami) at Jamra Aqaba (Big Satan) before sun is past meridian.

16. Sacrifice animal. One lamb or sheep per person. Camel and cow can be shared by 7 persons .

17.Haircut or shaving of head.

18. Come out of Ihram and proceed to Makkah.

19. At Makkah Tawaf Ziarah and Saee

Return to MINA before dawn of 11th Dhul Hijah

11th Dhul Hijjah

20. Lapidation (Rami) at all the Three Jamarat after the sun is past meridian (seven pebbles at each jamra)

21. Stay in Mina

12th Dhul Hijjah

22. Lapidation to be repeated as on 11 Dhul Hijjjah

23. Leave Mina for Makkah before sunset, perform Tawaf Wida(farewell) and depart for Madinah or home if you have already visited Madinah.

13th Dhul Hijjah

24. If sun sets in Mina before departure for Makkah on 12th., stay there and do lapidation as on the previous two days after the sun is past meridian, leave Mina for Makkah.

( NOTE:Pebbeles must be thrown singly and not all together)

25. Tawaf Wida (Farewell Tawaf) when leaving Makkah for Madinah or home country.


Pilgrims are also recommended to repeat the traditional phrase declaring that they are responding to Allah’s call for them to offer the pilgrimage and complete it. They repeat these phrases as they go into Ihram.

Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik.

Labbaik Laa Shareeka Laka Labbaik

Innal Hamda Wannimata laka

walmulk Laa Shareeka Lak

Translation"I respond to Your call my Lord

I respond to You, there is no diety save You.

All praise, grace and dominion belong to You.

You have no partners."

Men should utter this aloud while women should say it silently.

Repeat this Talbiyyah frequently, and engage in the praise of Allah, in supplication for forgiveness, and in the enjoining of what is good and the forbidding of what is evil.

Essentials of pilgrimage

There are four essentials of pilgrimage which must be done for it to be valid. Omitting anyone of these will invalidate one’s pilgrimage. These are:

1. Ihram

2. Attendance at Arafat at the specified time

3. The Tawaf of ifaadah(farewell) and

4. Sa’ie between Safah and Marwah

5. A fifth essential is added by Al-Shafie school of thought, which is to shave one’s head (for men only) or to shorten one’s hair.

Restrictions of Ihram

In the state of Ihram the following acts are forbidden.

1) To cut or shave the hairs of head or body, till the sacrifice of animals is completed.

2) To cut the nails.

3) To wear stitched clothes (for men only).

4) To wear turban or cap or anything which covers the heads (for men only).

5) To wear shoes or socks above the ankle.

6) To apply perfume.

7) To cover the face

8) To perform Nikah or to arrange for Nikah.

9) To hunt animals.

10) To fight or quarrel.

11) To have sex,

Women in Hajj

Performing Hajj without Mahram forbidden

According to Nusrat Ibn Abbas, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) has said that no woman should make a journey without a Mahram. On hearing this, one person said “O Prophet (Pbuh), my name has been included in Jihad and my wife has left for the Hajj pilgrimage.” The Prophet (Pbuh) replied: “Go and perform the Hajj with your wife”. (Mishkat)

Mahram means a person with whom a marriage is not possible, example father, son, nephew, son-in-law, paternal uncle and maternal uncle. Paternal cousins and maternal cousins cannot be Mahram because marriage can be consummated with them. Mahram is such a person with whom one may not experience feelings which are natural only to a married state. Some women consider anyone as brother or son for the sake of making a journey. This is not allowed by Shariat. In the performance of the holy rites of Hajj to break Shariat law and perform the Hajj is clearly a sin and considered as haram. This is because from beginning to the end it is a violation of the Shariat. Without a Mahram, the journey is forbidden whether the journey is by air or by any other means.

Some points to remember

(i) If a woman is eligible to perform Hajj with the necessary means to do so but cannot find a Mahram, she is not allowed to perform it.

(ii) If a woman having the means to perform Hajj and also has a Mahram is in the state of Idat (Obligatory period observed after husband’s death) then the performance of Hajj for her is incorrect.

(iii) Performing Hajj for a woman in the period of Iddat (after separation in marriage) is considered a sin.

iv) If a wife wishes to perform Hajj with a Mahram (such as son) then the husband cannot prevent her from performing Hajj.

Ihram for Women

(i) It is obligatory for women to cover the head.

(ii) Stitched cloth is allowed.

(iii) Any colour dress is allowed.

As for a woman pilgrim, she is forbidden to use perfumed clothes, a veil that covers the face, and gloves.

Ibn ‘Umar reported : “Allah’s Messenger (Pbuh) forbade women pilgrims from wearing gloves, veils and clothes dyed with saffron or worse. Besides these, they may wear anything else, any colour, silk clothes, ornaments, trousers, or a shirt or shoes.”

Bukhari reported that ‘Aishah (RA) wore a dress that was dyed with ‘usfur’ while she was in a state of Ihram, and she said: “A woman must neither wear a veil to cover her face, nor wear clothes that are dyed with saffron or other fragrant dyeing material.” Jabir said: “I do not consider ‘usfur a scent.”

‘Aishah held that there is no harm in women pilgrims wearing ornaments, black or rose-coloured clothes and shoes.

Bukhari and Ahmad have reported that the Prophet (Pbuh) said: “A pilgrim woman must neither cover her face nor wear gloves.” This proves that a woman in the state of Ihram should not cover her face and hands. The scholars, however, say that there is no harm if she covered her face with something other than a veil. She may also use an umbrella or similar item as a screen between men and herself. But if she is afraid of tempting others she must cover her face.

‘Aishah said: “Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet (Pbuh) and in the state of Ihram. We would cover our face with our gowns when they passed by us, and then uncover them again.”

On Menstrual Days

It is reported by Hazrat Aishah that once on a Hajj Pilgrimage when she experience the inconvenience of monthly period, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) noticing her inconvenience said: “There is no need to cry. This is something that Allah has made as a natural occurrence for daughters of Adam (Pbuh), meaning all women.”

Most scholars are of the opinion that purification is not necessary for performing Sa’i between Safa and Marwah, in the light of what the Prophet

(Pbuh) said to ‘Aishah once when she menstruated. He told her. “You may perform all rites (of Hajj) as other pilgrims do, except performing tawaf around the Ka’bah which you may do after you are clean and no longer menstruating.” ‘Aishah and Ummi Salamah said: “A woman who performs the tawaf, offers two rak’ah prayer (by the Station of Ibrahim), and then finds that her period has started, may perform Sa’i between Safa and Marwah.” It is preferable, however, to be in a state of complete purity while performing various rites of Hajj or ‘Umrah, because cleanliness is commendable in Islam.

* It is permissible for woman to enter the state of Ihram in case she has experienced menstrual period or child birth by performing the ghusl (obligatory bath) and making the niyat (intention) of Hajj or Umrah. She will have to recite “Labbaik, Allahumma Lubaik, La Shareeka Lak, Innal Hamda, Wannaymata Lak, Walmulk, La Shareeka Lak. This is enough for her to enter the state of Ihram.

* She may not offer the two rak’ats nafil salat of Ihram until she is fully clean and performed the obligatory ghusl. (bath).

* After Ihram she may perform the duties of Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina.

* She may not perform tawaf in this state after reaching Makkah.

* She may pray and recite Istaghfar and all other duas.

* If a woman fears that she may begin to menstruate she may perform the Tawaf Al-Ifadah early on the day of Nahr - 10th of Dhul-Hajjah as a precaution against the menses.

* If a woman (Pilgrim) is afraid of her monthly period, she may perform the Tawaf of Ka’bah before throwing the pebbles at Jamarah Al Aqabah and even before her sacrificial animal is slaughtered.

* Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and no men are around. It is reported that ‘Aishah said to a woman, “Do not crowd with others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwise if there is crowding, then say a takbir (Allah is the

Greatest) when you are opposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone.”

*Staying at Arafah means physical and mental presence in any part of Arafah, whether one is awake, asleep, riding, sitting, lying down, walking, and regardless of whether one is in a state of purity or not, e.g., a menstruating woman

*There is consensus on throwing pebbles before midnight on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah (the Night of Sacrifice). It is permissible, however, for women, children, the weak, those who have a valid excuse, to throw pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah in the night.

* Persons who for valid reasons, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf. Jabir said, “We performed Hajj with the Prophet (Pbuh) and we had some women and children with us. We (adults) uttered talbiyah and threw pebbles on behalf of the children.” This was reported by Ibn Majah.

* Abu Daw’ud and others reported from Ibn’ Abbas that the Prophet (Pbuh) said, “Women (Pilgrims) do not have to shave (their heads); they may only shorten their hair.”

Ibn ‘Umar said, “when a woman (Pilgrim) wants to cut off her hair, she may hold her hair at the front and cut it off about the length of the tip of a finger.”




Source Islamic Voice Jan 2003

Pilgrims leave Mina for the plain of 'Arafat for the wuquf, "the standing," the central rite of the Hajj. As they congregate there, the gathering reminds them of the Day of Judgement

By Ni'mah Isma'il Nawwab

On the first day of the Hajj, pilgrims sweep out of Makkah towards Mina, a small uninhabited village east of the city. Pilgrims generally spend their time meditating and praying, as the Prophet (PBUH) did on his pilgrimage.

During the second day, the 9th of Zul-Hijjah, pilgrims leave Mina for the plain of ‘Arafat for the wuquf, “the standing,” the central rite of the Hajj. As they congregate there, the pilgrims’ stance and gathering reminds them of the Day of Judgement. Some of them gather at the Mount of Mercy, where the Prophet (PBUH) delivered his unforgettable Farewell Sermon, enunciating far-reaching religious, economic, social and political reforms. The Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have asked God to pardon the sins of pilgrims who “stood” at ‘Arafat, and was granted his wish. Thus, the hopeful pilgrims prepare to leave this plain joyfully, feeling reborn without sin and intending to turn over a new leaf.

Just after sunset, the mass of pilgrims proceeds to Muzdalifah, an open plain about halfway between ‘Arafat and Mina. There they first pray and then collect a fixed number of chickpea-sized pebbles to use on the following days.

Before daybreak on the third day, pilgrims move en masse from Muzdalifah to Mina. There they cast at white pillars the pebbles they have previously collected.This practice is associated with Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). As pilgrims throw seven pebbles at each of these pillars, they remember the story of Satan’s attempt to persuade Ibrahim (PBUH) to disregard God’s command to sacrifice his son.

Following the casting of the pebbles, most pilgrims sacrifice a goat, sheep or some other animal. They give the meat to the poor, keeping a small portion for themselves. As the pilgrims have, at this stage, finished a major part of the Hajj, they are now allowed to shed their ihram and put on everyday clothes. On this day Muslims around the world share the happiness the pilgrims feel and join them by performing identical, individual sacrifices in a worldwide celebration of ‘Id al-Adha, “the Festival of Sacrifice.”

Men either shave their heads or clip their hair, and women cut off a symbolic lock, to mark their partial de-consecration. This is done as a symbol of humility. All proscriptions, save the one of conjugal relations, are now lifted.

Still sojourning in Mina, pilgrims visit Makkah to perform another essential rite of the Hajj: the tawaf, the seven-fold circling of the Ka’bah, with a prayer recited during each circuit. Their circumambulation of the Ka’bah, the symbol of God’s oneness, implies that all human activity must have God at its center. It also symbolizes the unity of God and man.

After completing the tawaf, pilgrims pray, preferably at the Station of Ibrahim, the site where Ibrahim (PBUH) stood while he built the Ka’bah. Then they drink of the water of Zamzam.

Another, and sometimes final, rite is the sayi, or “the running.” This is a re-enactment of a memorable episode in the life of Hagar (PBUH), who was taken into what the Qur’an calls the “uncultivable valley” of Makkah, with her infant son Ishmael, to settle there.

The sayi commemorates Hagar’s frantic search for water to quench Ishmael’s thirst. She ran back and forth seven times between two rocky hillocks, al-Safa and al-Marwah, until she found the sacred water known as Zamzam. This water, which sprang forth miraculously under Ishmael’s tiny feet, is now enclosed in a marble chamber within the premises of the Ka’bah.

These rites performed, the pilgrims are completely deconsecrated: They may resume all normal activities.

They now return to Mina, where they stay up to the 12th or 13th day of Zul-Hijjah. There they throw their remaining pebbles at each of the pillars in the manner either practiced or approved by the Prophet (PBUH). They then take leave of the friends they have made during the Hajj. Before leaving Makkah, however, pilgrims usually make a final tawaf round the Ka’bah to bid farewell to the Holy City.

Mina.-Over two million Muslims gather annually for the Hajj, many staying in tented accommodations at certain stages of the pilgrimage.

Pilgrims gather on the plain of ‘Arafat at the Mount of Mercy, where the Prophet (PBUH) delivered his Farewell Sermon.

A pillar marks the Mount of Mercy the rocky hill rising from the plain of Arafat.

Waqfa - pilgrims dressed in ‘ihram’, a garment made of two seamless white sheets or towels symbolising purity and equality, perform the ritual of waqfa (standing before Allah) at the Mount of Mercy.

Hajjis spend one night camped at Muzdalifah between Arafat and Mina.

Bus en route from Muzdalifa at break of dawn

Tawaf - pilgrims walk seven times around the Ka’bah in a anti-clockwise direction.

Towards the end of the Hajj the sacrifice of an animal such a sheep, goat or camel takes place. This festival of sacrifice (Eid ul-Adha) commerates Prophet Ibrahim’s (PBUH) willingness to sacrifice his son for God.


May it please Almighty Allah help you to complete hajj and return home to your near and dear ones.In Hajj please pray for the forgiveness of the sins one who has relayed this message to you, Allah Hafiz

Source Islamic Voice Jan 2003





















Earth, a planet hungry for peace


The Israeli apartheid (security) wall around Palestinian population centers (Ran Cohen, pmc, 5/24/03).


The Israeli apartheid (security) wall around Palestinian population centers in the West Bank, like a Python. (Alquds,10/25/03).

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