Al-Jazeerah: Cross-Cultural Understanding
Video of Photos from Isdood Before 1948 فيديو صور من اسدود قبل عام
نبذةٌ تاريخيةٌ قصيرةٌ
A Brief History
(Also written as Isdoud, Isdud, and Ashdod)*
Isdood is the village of the Editor of this publication (ccun.org), where his parents lived before being evicted from it in October 1948. They became refugees living in a tent near the sea of Gaza city, where he was born. Then, the family moved to Dair El-Balah refugee camp, in central Gaza Strip.
The UN General Assembly passed Resolution194 in 1948, calling on the Israeli government to allow Palestinian refugees to be repatriated into their villages and towns after the war. However, successive Israeli governments never allowed Palestinian refugees to return to their lands, towns, and villages, thus creating the Palestinian refugee problem. Instead, the Israeli government encouraged Jews from all over the world to immigrate to Israel, acquire the Israeli citizenship, and dispossess the Palestinian people, by living in their homes and using their lands and property.
Directly, after the war, Israelis destroyed Isdood, like they did to the vast majority of Palestinian villages and towns in an attempt to destroy the Palestinian-Cana'anite history, which spans thousands of years in the Holy Land, well before the existence of Judaism itself.
The following is an attempt to keep Isdood in the human memory and to educate Palestinians, Israelis, and peace-loving people around the world about our precious history, which can never be dismissed by destroying villages and towns.
I hope, dream, and pray that one day real peace comes to the Holy Land, allowing descendants of the Palestinians refugees to return to Isdood and other villages and towns, to rebuild their schools, mosques, and homes; and live in peace forever in their Holy ancestral homeland.
Hassan Ali El-Najjar
1 Muharram, 1429
January 9, 2008.
Nakba, Exodus Day from Isdood: October 28, 1948
Memoirs By Ahmad Hassan Joudah
Published on October 28, 2014 on Facebook:
The 28th of October, is the 66th anniversary of the eviction of the people of my village Isdood in 1948 .The people were relaxed and secured after the arrival of the Egyptian forces on May 29 ,1948,despite continuous Israeli assault against the village and the forces . But on Oct.15, the Israeli army launched a general attack against the Egyptian front which forced the E. Forces to redeploy and shorten their defense lines .
Accordingly they withdrew from Isdood and Al Majdal . As soon as the inhabitants of Isdood learned that , the news spread like wild fire and the people panicked , particularly after four nights of ceaseless Israeli aerial bombardment. They left their homes in fear and panic heading south to Al-Majdal . It was close to sunset, some families could not make it before darkness , so they spent the night east of the village Hamameh , among those was my family.
After midnight my mother awakened me and urged me to go back to Isdood to bring my school documents including my birth certificate if I were to complete my education , so I had no choice . At my arrival to our home, my father who refused to leave home , was very upset and asked me to gather the needed papers and leave soon.
But I found neither my family nor any one of my village in the places where I left them . It took me about three days until I reached Gaza to fin d them staying at one of my father’s friends in Gaza who fought together during the WW1.
About 400 persons remained in the village , but the Israeli authorities arrested the young people( 50 ) and kicked out the rest who were mainly elderly women and men . They loaded them in trucks and dumped them at the Gaza Strip borders ; among them was my father who joined us at his friend’s house . Most of the prisoners were released during the summer of 1949 .
In November 48 , I attended the only Secondary school in Gaza and in March 49 , I worked as a teacher in one of the refugee schools in the afternoon while going to my school in the morning .
اليوم ٢٨ أكتوبر 2014 هو الذكرى السادسة والستين لطردنا من اسدود عام ١٩٤٨ بعد أربعة ايام من قصف جوي متواصل من طيران العدو الصهيوني . وكان قصفا عشوائيا وأحدث اضراراً بشرية ومادية جسيمة ولم يكن الناس يعرفون ان هناك انسحابا للقوات المصرية بالتدريج وخفية الى عصر يوم ٢٨ أكتوبر وكان يوم الأربعاء على ما اعتقد ، فشاع الخبر بين الناس كانتشارالنار في الهشيم . فهرع الناس الى بيوتهم وأخذوا اولادهم وما استطاعوا التقاطه من متاعهم اذا كان لديهم وسيلة نقل، وكثير من الناس تَرَكُوا اموالهم وتركت بعض النساء مصاغها من شدة الهلع والفزع .
وهنا من الجدير ان نذكر ان بعض الشباب المثقف حاول ان يقنع الناس بعدم الرحيل ولكن فشلت جميع المحاولات ، لقد بقي في البلدة بضع مئات ( ٣٠٠-٣٥٠ ) ومعظمهم من كبار السن (الاختيارية) وحوالي خمسين من الشباب . ولما احتل اليهود اسدود اعتقلوا الشباب وحملوا الاختيارية في شاحنات ورموهم على حدود القطاع ،
غربت الشمس ومعظم أهل البلدة قد وصلوا شرقي قرية حمامة فباتوا الليلة هناك . ثم تابعوا مسيرتهم في الصباح نحو المجدل والبعض تابع السير الى غزة . بعد منتصف تلك الليلة أيقظني والدتي وطلبت مني ان اعود الى اسدود لأحضر شهاداتي المدرسية اللازمة لالتحاقي بالمدرسة اذا كنت انوي مواصلة الدراسة . وفعلاً رجعت الى اسدود وذهبت الى بيتنا وحملت كتبي والشهادات ومعها شهادة الميلاد . ولما رجعت لم اعثر عليهم ، واخيرا وصلت الى غزة فوجدتهم في بيت صديق لوالدي من عائلة الخضري في حارة الجديدة بالشجاعية ، فقد قاتلا معا في الحرب العالمية الاولى في الجيش العثماني .
هذا باختصار شديد والتفصيلات تتبع مستقبلا وفي كتاب اسدود كذلك . هذه الذكريات يجب ان تكون حافزا للاجيال من اجل العودة للوطن قريبا ان شاء الله. وان غدا لناظره قريب .
كتبت أم سعيد أبو حرب فى صفحتها على الفيسبوك:
المصدر: "كي لا ننسى" من تأليف وليد الخالدي.
اليوم الثلاثاء 28/10/2014م ذكرى نكبة مدينة اسدود 1948
عندما دخلت القوات المصرية فلسطين في 15 أيار / مايو 1948 كان من أوائل أهدافها التمركز في إسدود وقد كلف بهذه المهمة بالكتيبة المصرية التاسعة لكن في 32 أيار وصلت كتيبة جديدة إلى الجبهة فسلمت إسدود للكتيبة السادسة بحسب ما ذكر الرئيس المصري الراحل جمال عبد الناصر الذي كان آنذاك من ضباط الأركان في تلك الكتيبة (لم تذكر الصحافة الأجنبية خبر وصول وحدات مصرية إلى إسدود تقع على الخطوط الأمامية بين القوات المصرية والإسرائيلية.
وكانت القوات الإسرائيلية قطعت الطريق بين المجدل واسدود فترة وجيزة إلا إن المصريين نجحوا في إزاحة تلك القوات عنها واستعادوا بالتالي خطوط إمداداتهم وكان ذلك في أثناء تنفيذ الجيش الإسرائيلي عملية براك( البطاني الغربي).
كانت أوامر العمليات العسكرية الإسرائيلية تقضي بهجوم على المجدل إسدود ويبنة وذلك (للتسبب بتشريد أي نزوح سكان المراكز السكنية الصغرى في المنطقة) وقد شن الهجوم من جهات ثلاث في 2-3 حزيران/ يونيو وأدى إلى فرار الألوف من السكان المحليين وذلك بحسب ما روى المؤرخ الإسرائيلي بني موريس وجاء تقرير نشرته صحفية (نيورك تايمز) أن (القتال الأكثر دمويا) في جنوب البلاد جرى في 3 حزيران / يونيو حول إسدود ثم شن هجوم إسرائيلي آخر بعد ذلك بأيام معدودة, في 9-10 حزيران/ يوينو.
وفي اليوم التالي دخلت الهدنة الأولى حيز النتفيذ وطوال فترة هذه الهدنة كان جمال عبد الناصر مرابطا في إسدود حيث كان يراقب النشاط العسكري الإسرائيلي خلال هذه الفترة وفي الفترة ما بين الهدنتين شنت وحدات من المغاوير الإسرائيلية هجمات في منطقة إسدود وورد في مقال مصور نشرته (نيورك تايمز) بتاريخ 16 وصلت إلى الخطوط المصرية في إسدود.
لم يتم احتلال بلدة إسدود إلا عند نهاية الهدنة الثانية من الحرب في تشرين الأول\ أكتوبر 1948 فقد قصفت بحرا وجوا في بداية عملية يوآف (بربرة ), سقطت في يد الإسرائيليين في المرحلة الأخيرة من هذه العملية.
كانت المراحل المبكرة من عملية يوآف مترابطة مع أقسام من عملية ههار التي قام لواء غفعاتي بها إلى الشمال إذا اقتحم هذا اللواء عددا من القرى في قضاء الخليل, بينما كانت قوات أخرى تنفذ علمية يوآف وقد سقطت كثير من قرى قضاء الخليل في 22-23 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر في يد الإسرائيليين وفر كثيرون من سكان التلال المحيطة بالخليل قبل وصول القوات الإسرائيلية.
أما من تخلف منهم فقد طرد نحو الخليل وعند نهاية عمليتي ههار ويوآف في الأسبوع الأخير من تشرين الأول\ أكتوبر 1948 تم دمج منطقتي العمليتين أحداهما في الأخرى واخترقت الوحدات الإسرائيلية الخطوط المصرية في 23 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر 1948 فربطت الأجزاء التي تحتلها إسرائيل في جبال الخليل بممر القدس.
وجاء في صحيفة (نيورك تايمز) أن قاذفات الجيش الإسرائيلي حلقت في 18 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر(من دون أي عائق تقريبا) نحو أهدافها, طوال ثلاث ليال متتالية وأن هذه الأهداف كانت تشمل إسدود وبات المصريون مهددين بالحصار والعزل فانسحبوا على الطريق الساحلي في اتجاه الجنوب.
أما معظم من بقي من السكان المدنيين فقد فر مع الطوابير المصرية قبل دخول الإسرائيليين في 28 تشرين الأول/ أكتوبر. ويذكر موريس أن نحو 300 من سكان البلدة بقوا فيها رافعين الأعلام البيض و(طردوا فورا نحو الجنوب) ومع ذلك فقد جاء في بلاغ عسكري إسرائيلي صدر يوم احتلال إسدود أن القوات الإسرائيلية دخلت البلدة بناء على طلب وفد من السكان العرب المحليين.
كتاب "كي لا ننسى" من تأليف وليد الخالدي.
A Brief History of Isdood
By Mariam Shanin
Isdood: The Great City of SyriLz
The 3,700-year-old town was a strategic city in antiquity that stood on the main route from Palestine to Egypt. Believed to have been built in the Middle Bronze Age by the Cana'anites on the acropolis of the present mound, it was known for its weight standard and its harbor, from which it exported its textiles and traded in dyes. Its main trading partner was neighboring Egypt.
In about 1300 BCE, the city appears to have been
completely laid to waste. At the time, towns were destroyed either by
invaders or by the local population who burned their own homes rather than
allow the invaders to have them. Shortly after Isdood's destruction, the
Philistines arrived. They appear to have used the remains of the Cana'anite
buildings. They rebuilt the city and settled it, expanding its borders
beyond the acropolis for the first time. The size of the town went from an
area of approximately 20 acres to at least 90 in a few years. According to
the Old Testament version of history, the Philistines captured the Ark of
the Covenant and took it to their main sanctuary, the Temple of Dagon in Isdood.
Close to the highest point of the mound archeologists
unearthed an 11th-century BCE burial site of a single male skeleton. A heavy
dagger with an iron blade lay next to him and within a short distance of the
man's skeleton was the burial chamber of a horse.
One of the most significant Isdoodi finds to date is a group of' figurines, five in all, which probably represented the orchestra at the court of the local ruler. They included statues of double flutes, cymbals, a tambourine, and a lyre.
Assyrian sources indicate that the city witnessed a renaissance for about 200 years, with substantial trade and mercantile activity from the 10th to 8th centuries BCE. But the Philistines were not to live in peace and prosperity: the city was destroyed again, this time by Uzziah, the king of Judah. Uzziah's 8th-century war to control the trade routes pitted him against the king of Israel as well as against the Philistines.
By 712 BCE the Assyrians made Isdood a tributary under Sargon II. Archeological finds in the late 1960s indicated that hundreds, if not thousands, of people were massacred during that conquest of the city. Mass graves containing dismembered bodies were uncovered at the time on the lowest part of the Mount of Isdud. Although Isdud became an Assyrian vassal state, it rebelled in no time. In 713 BCE, Azuri, the king of Isdood, refused to pay tributaries. Sargon then sent his armies to enslave the local population and settle the cities with people he had picked up as booty on the way. Archeological finds indicate that the Philistine population of Isdood was sent into exile and replaced by another, who simply moved into their homes.
Subsequently another ruler of Isdood, King Mitini, revitalized the city and with a largely new population, paid taxes to the Assyrian treasury. The Egyptians took the Assyrians to task and besieged the coastal city for 29 years. According to Herodotus, "Azotos [as Isdood was later called] held out against a siege longer than any city of which I have heard." But it was the Babylonians who finally brought Isdood to its knees. The city, exhausted and depopulated, shrank to a small town on the acropolis, while an adjacent city, Ashdod, more Persian (actually Babylonian) and Hellenistic in character, was built further north by the sea.
During the Persian period in the 5th century BCE, many Judeans married into Isdoodi families and were condemned by their governor, Nehemiah. After Alexander's conquest of Gaza, Isdood became known as Azotos. Finds from that period indicate that it again grew to be a city of some significance. Recent archeological finds indicate that the deities of the Philistines survived an overlay of Hellenistic culture that Alexander introduced.
In Byzantine times it was the site of a bishopric. The evangelist Philip came to the town after baptizing the eunuch of Queen Candance of Ethiopia. Isdood's first bishop was Sylvanus (323 CE), who according to church records actively participated in the bitter theological debates in the 5th century at the Council of Chalcedon. Sixth-century Isdood can be seen on the map of Madaba.
During the Arab-Muslim era Isdood became predominantly Muslim. During the Mamluk period it became one of the main postal stops from Gaza to the rest of the country and Syria. After the Middle Ages it provided the main stopover for travellers going from Gaza to Yaffa, and its inhabitants protected the route to Ramleh. Today's remnants of the Mamluk caravanserai to the south of the village are believed to date back to the days of Baibars. By the beginning of the 19th century it was already in disuse and local villagers were dismantling it, using its stones for building houses in the village.
During the Ottoman period Isdood was part of the administrative district of Gaza. In 1596, records show that the population of 413 harvested wheat, barely, and sesame, and tended goats and beehives.
Most homes in Isdood were built of mud brick, in the architectural style of the southern Palestinian coast. The town was filled with palm and fig trees, which provided staples for both the local and surrounding populations.
One of the town's two mosques was built during the era
of Baibars, while the other was built during the Ottoman era. In 1929 the
Mosque of Sidi Amer was reported to have been supported by
"ancient" columns of white marble.
In 1948 Isdood was a quiet Palestinian town with some 5,000 inhabitants. Local lore has it that the three shrines in the town were erected in memory of Salman al-Farisi, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, an Egyptian clergyman Shaykh al-Matbuli, and an otherwise unattributed (probably a Sufi Shaikh) Ahmad Abu aI-Iqbal.
Isdood was on the front lines between Israeli and Egyptian forces, which sent its 6th Battalion to Isdood in May 1948. Some fierce fighting took place around Isdood in early June, but the town did not fall to Israeli forces until October, when the townspeople fled after a three-night air bombardment. The 300 people who stayed and surrendered to the Israelis with white flags were expelled.
The 5,000 inhabitants of Isdood went to the Gaza strip in their entirety; most of them (and their descendants live in the Shati, Jabalia, Al-Nussairat, Al-Buraij, Dair El-Balah, Khan Younis, and Rafah) refugee camps to this day. Many of their children and grandchildren were active in the first and second Palestinian uprising. Many Palestinians laborers work at the port in Ashdod and elsewhere in the city. Under existing trade agreements much of the imports and exports coming to Palestinian self-rule areas must go through Ashdod or one of the other Israeli coastal cities. Isdood, in the. meantime, is known to Israelis as the archeological site Tell Ashdod.
Founded in 1956, this modern Israeli city is 7 kilometers north, northwest of the ancient city ruins. An archeological museum on 15 Hasheyatim Street contains a few of the artifacts found in Isdood. The artificial port, enclosed by breakwaters, is southern Israel's only outlet to the Mediterranean; much of the country's citrus crop is exported through Ashdod. There are large synthetic-textile plants and a number of other industries. In addition, Ashdod has a petroleum refinery and one of Israel's major power plants. It has a population of 80,000.
Ad- Halom Bridge
This bridge was built toward the end of the Ottoman
era on the remains of an older Roman bridge. It passes over Wadi Sukrair (the
Lachish River) at the southern entrance of modern Ashdod. The small concrete
tower served as an observation point and military post for the British west
of the bridge. To the south, an obelisk symbolizes peace between Egypt and
Israel. The monument honors the Egyptian soldiers who fought and died in
defense of the Palestinians in this region.
Minet Al-Qala'a (Port of the Castle)
Built by the Fatimids in the 10th century, the former Port Castle is a rectangular fortress (60 by 40 m/ 19 7 by 13 1 ft) with a guard tower at each corner. The towers were enclosed by a high wall. Two huge gates in the wall gave access to the stronghold. It is southeast of Isdood's ruins, close to Ashdod.
Known as Jabneel (Yabneel) in the Bible, Yahve to the Philistines, Iamnia or Gabinius to the Romans, and Yavne to the modern Israelis. This town has been inhabited continuously for 3,000 years. Though it appears to have been a secondary town to the Philistines, in Hellenistic times Yibna was a regional administrative center. The Hasmonians eventually destroyed it, but the Romans had the town and its port rebuilt. At the time the port superseded that of Yaffa in importance and the Judeans took refuge here in CE 70.
Muslims from nearby Ramleh also
settled there and by 985 a beautiful mosque was built adjacent to the tomb
of Abu Hureira, one of the Prophet Muhammad's companions.
By the time the Israelis invaded Yibna it had a settled population of 5,500 and some 1,500 nomads. Five hundred of its residents were schoolchildren and most of these, their children and grandchildren now live as refugees in the Gaza Strip. Eight Israeli settlements were built on Yibna's land by the 1960s.
Some 4 kilometers northwest of the town is Israel's first atomic research reactor. Today the "old" Yibna is a ghost town. Less than half a dozen houses of the village are occupied, mostly by Jewish families, one still by Arabs. The dilapidated mosque, over 1,000 years old, is falling apart. The Tomb of Rabbi Gamliel was super-imposed on the tomb of Abu Hureira.
* The author of the above article, Mariam Shahin, uses the word "Isdud." Other words used by other Arab authors include Isdood and Isdoud, which are Arabic Cana'anite in origin.
Israelis today use the Babylonian word "Ashdod" to refer to the new city they built on the location of the ancient Babylon-controlled city, by the sea after 1948.
The editor of ccun.org has replaced the word "Isdud" by the word "Isdood," as the the latter includes the more accurate longer vowel. He also added few comments in parentheses.
Mariam Shanin (Author) and George Azar (Photograhy). "Palestine: A Guide." 2005. Chastelton Travel. Catalogued in British Library. (Pages 395-401).
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