A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity
By Hassan Ali El-Najjar
1445 / 2023
in English with Arabic Texts of Verses and ‘Hadeeths
Islam: A Scientific View of God's Message to Humanity, in English with Arabic Texts
Copyright © 2023 by Hassan Ali El-Najjar. All rights reserved.
Published in the United States of America by the author.
In addition to this English version of the book, which includes the Arabic texts of verses and ‘Hadiths, there’s another English-only version. A third version of the book is in Arabic, which is titled as:
الإسْلامُ: رُؤْيَةٌ عِلْمِيَةٌ لِرِسَالَةِ اللهِ لِلْبَشَرِيَّةِ
The book can be ordered by email at: email@example.com
Or by mail at:
P.O. Box 724, Dalton, GA 30722-0724
Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN): 2020913981
Cataloging-in-Publication Data (Keywords):
Islam, Iman, Ihsan, guidance to humanity, Quran, Hadith, Quran scientific evidence, creation and evolution, God’s caliphs, Adam and angels, free worshipper, soul, spirit, spiritual-physical relationship, heart-mind relationship, proclamation of faith, prayer, zakat (charity), fasting Ramadhan, pilgrimage (Haj), Allah, angels, Last Day, God’s precise measurement and just decrees, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammed and his Night Journey (Al-Isra Wal Mi’raj).
About the author:
The author of this book was born in Ghazza (Gaza), Palestine, in in 1369 Hijriya (1950 AD). He received the first eleven years of education in Gaza Strip and his high school diploma from Raghadan School, in Amman, Jordan, in 1968. He had his Bachelor’s degree in English Education from Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1972. He worked as a teacher in Libya and the United Arab Emirates before immigrating with his family to the United States, in 1986. He had his Master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology, from the University of Georgia, in 1988, and his Ph.D. in Sociology also from the University of Georgia, in 1993. From 1991 until the publication of this book, in 2020, he was a teacher at Dalton State College.
The author’s full name is Hassan Ali Hassan Ahmed Muhammed Abdul Hadi (El-Najjar) Muhammed Joudah Al-Harooni. His greatest grandfather, Joudah, emigrated from the town of Arab Wadi Fatima, near Makkah (now in Saudi Arabia), in the seventeenth century and settled in Isdood (Ashdod), Palestine. The author’s fourth grandfather (Abdul Hadi) was also known as El-Najjar (The Carpenter), which became his descendants’ last name.
Atalanta, Georgia, 8th Day of Rabee’ Al-Thani, 1445, October 23, 2023.
The Author’s Related Books
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (النَّحْلُ ، 26: 125).
وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ (فُصِّلَتْ ، 41: 33).
وقالَ رسولُ اللهِ ، صَلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسَلَّمَ : "بَلِّغُوا عَنِّي ولو آيَةً" (التِّرْمِذِيُّ: 2669 ، الْبُخَاَرِيُّ: 3461).
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is (rightly) guided (Al-Na’hl, 16: 125).
And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah, and does righteousness, and says, "Indeed, I am of the Muslims" (Fussilat, 41: 33).
The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: “Teach on my behalf, even one verse (of the Holy Quran) (Al-Tirmidthi: 2669, Al-Bukhari: 3461).
This book is a scientific view of Islam, introducing it to average readers, researchers, and policy makers. In addition to providing basic information about this religion, it attempts to answer some of the fundamental questions about the human existence and its purpose. Moreover, it is intended to be a main source of knowledge about this great religion, which is followed by about 1.7 billion people worldwide.
Verses from the Holy Quran are the main source of information for the topics discussed in this book, and other books written by this author about Islam, followed by ‘Hadeeths (sayings) of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh). Then, interpretations of the Quran verses by the most renowned Muslim scholars, , particularly Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, are used as a background for understanding the meanings of verses.. Their interpretations are valued for including ‘Hadeeths of the Prophet, pbbuh, as well as opinions and applications of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them (mAbpwt). Finally, verses of the Holy Quran, mentioned in the discussed topics, are explained in relation to our contemporary knowledge from the social and natural sciences, particularly anthropology, sociology, biology, and cosmology. The objective is to show that the Holy Quran is the Word of Allah (the God), praise to Him, as it contains so many scientific facts, which have been discovered only in the past few centuries. Consequently, it is an assurance to believers and an invitation to others, to believe in the Lord of the Worlds, and His Message to humanity.
This author has divided his work about Islam into seven related books (parts). The first book (Islam: A Scientific View of God’s Message to Humanity) includes ten chapters. It starts with a brief introduction about the Holy Quran, the Sunna, and Islamic research, as the main sources of knowledge about Islam. Then, there is an introduction to the three levels of faith: Islam (performing the five duties), Ieman (faith), and I’hsan (righteousness). This is followed by a discussion about of the scientific evidence for God’s existence and for the Holy Quran as His message to humanity. An exploration is conducted, after that, about the issue of creation and evolution, from an Islamic perspective, including how life started on Earth, how it evolved, and the divine intervention. God’s decision to honor humans as worthy of ruling over Earth is also addressed, with particular attention to Adam’s winning of the contest with the angels and getting out of Paradise. Then, there is an investigation of the issue of whether humans are free in their choice to believe in God or not. This is followed by an examination of some relationships of special importance in explaining the tenets of Islam. The first is the relationship between the spiritual and physical aspects of Islamic teachings. The second is the relationship between the concepts of the mind, self, soul, spirit, and happiness. The third is the relationship between the heart and the mind. With God’s will, this book has been completed and published on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites: ccun.org and aljazeerah.info.
The second book (The Five Pillars of Islam: A Scientific View of the Two Proclamations of Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, and Pilgrimage) includes five chapters, providing basic information about the first level of faith (Islam), as manifested in the five pillars of the faith structure. These are the Islamic proclamation of faith, performing prayers, giving Zakat (charity), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and making the Haj (pilgrimage) to the House of Allah in Makkah, once in a person’s lifetime, if possible. Each one of these mandated ways of worship is explained in terms of rationale, rules, and practices, directly from the verses of the Holy Quran, ‘Hadeeths explaining them, and interpretations of Islamic scholars. In addition, contemporary scientific research is used to show the benefits of performing them, to the individual and to society. This book has also been completed and published, together with the first book, in one volume, on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.
The following three remaining books address the second level of faith (Ieman), namely, the belief in Allah (the God) and in His angels, messengers, messages, the Last Day, as well as in His precise measurement and His just decrees. Thus, the third book (Allah, His Good Names: Who Is He? What Does He Want for Humans?) aims at knowing about Allah, praise to Him, through His names and His adjectives, which He mentioned in the Holy Quran. It also contains His rationale for the creation of humans on the Earth. This book has also been completed and published on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.
The fourth book (Messengers of Allah to His Intelligent Creations) contains seven chapters, about the Messengers of Allah, praise to Him, to humans and jinn. It starts with a chapter about angels, who are the honored worshippers and messengers of Allah to His creations. Then, there are five chapters about the five human messengers, known for their determination and for the miracles they were provided with. These are Noo’h, Ibraheem, Moosa, ‘Eisa, and Mu’hammed (Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mu’hammed), peace and blessings of Allah be upon them. The seventh chapter is about the Night Journey and Ascent to heavens (Al-Isra Wal Mi’raj), which was a miracle, honoring the final Prophet of Allah. It was also a glad tiding to humans, that they can fly over the regions of the Earth, and through space to heavens, with permission of Allah. This book has not been published as a paper copy yet. However, its English version is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.
The fifth book (God’s Precise Measurement, His Just Decrees, and the Last Day) addresses the remaining articles of the second level of faith (Ieman). It contains three chapters, about signs of the Hour, the Last Day, as well as God’s Precise Measurement and His Just Decrees (Al-Qadar wal Qadha). This book has not been published as a paper copy yet. However, the English versions of its second and third chapters are available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.
Concerning the third level of faith (I’hsan), it will be addressed, God willing, in two books. The sixth book (An Introduction to Islamic Shari’a: Commands of Prohibition and Admonition in the Holy Quran”) is available, as an initial draft version, to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above. The seventh book is a continuation of the “Introduction to Islamic Shari’a,” but it contains “God’s Commands of Justice and Righteousness.” It has not been completed yet.
Islam: A Scientific View of God’s Message to Humanity
The Five Pillars of Islam: A Scientific View of the Two Proclamations of Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, and Pilgrimage
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
The word "Islam" means believing in Allah (The God)  to the extent of submitting your will to Him. In this sense, the Messengers of Allah such as Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Christ (Nooh, Ibrahim, Moussa, and 'Eissa), peace and blessings of Allah be upon them, pbbut all, as well as their righteous followers, are also considered Muslims. It is one religion, revealed to humans on Earth for thousands of years to guide them in this life and to reward them in the Hereafter. Muhammed, pbbuh, was the last of these Muslim Prophets and Messengers of Allah. 
The Arabic verb root of the word "Islam" is /salima/, meaning kept safe. The word "Muslim" is one of its derivatives. Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, said, "The Muslim is the person from whose tongue and hand Muslims are kept safe." In other words, a Muslim does not harm people with his/her tongue or hand. Other derivatives of the verb include /aslama/, which means to submit, from which came the noun "Muslim," as in verse 2: 112. Moreover, one of its derivatives is the word noun /silm/, which means peace. Thus, Islam means “peace,” as mentioned in verse 2: 208. 
Finally, Islam is the first level of faith, the attainment of which is required to gain the mercy and contentment of Allah, in order for a person to live happily in this life and to enter Paradise in the hereafter. A higher level is Iman (faith or belief in the unseen), as we learn from verse 49: 14, and the highest is I'hsan (righteousness). These three levels of faith are presented in the second Chapter of this book, as the major components of a well-known ‘Hadith, on the basis of which this book has been divided into three parts: an introduction, Islam, and Iman. Concerning I’hsan, it will be a separate book, insha Allah (God willing), because it is very much larger in size, containing the Commands of Allah, as revealed in the Holy Quran.
Sources of the Islamic teachings:
1. The Holy Quran
The Holy Quran (pronounced as two separate syllables Qur - an) is referred to, by some authors, as “Koran” but this is an inaccurate translation, as the letter Q is closer to the Arabic sound than the letter K. The Holy Quran is the first source of the Islamic teachings. It is the Book of God and His Message to humanity. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, in 23 years, starting from 610 AD, as mentioned in verse 53: 4-5. 
The Holy Quran was written by the scribes during the life of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, as he received its verses, by inspiration through the Angel, Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him. He would speak and they would write down the revelations. Then, they would read that which they wrote to him, and he would approve of it. He would also tell them about the order of Chapters and where to place the revealed verses.
By the death of the Prophet, pbbuh, some of the Holy Quran Chapters were in his house and others were in the houses of his Companions. The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, mAbpwh, collected all Chapters in one Book. However, it was the third Caliph, ‘Uthman, mAbpwh, who kept the Quraysh version of the Holy Quran and burned out all other versions, which were written in different dialects. The ‘Uthman’s version of the Holy Quran is the only one which Muslims have today. It has been guarded and kept safe from any changes or distortions, by the will of Allah, who stated that promise in verse 15: 9. 
The Holy Quran includes God’s teachings to humanity, including His commands and His prohibitions, the core of which were also revealed through His former Messengers. It also includes clarifications about the disputes between Jews and Christians, such as over the nature of Jesus and his Message to the Israelites.
The first Arabic word uttered by the Angel Jibril, peace be to him, to Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, was the command verb /iqra'/, which means "Read." This means that Allah, the Knowledgeable, wants His beloved human creation to be as knowledgeable as they can be, through reading, writing, and the accumulation of knowledge.
The Holy Quran in its Arabic original version, and its translations into other languages, can be found in many libraries and internet sites, such as www.tanzil.net, which has 18 different English translations, in addition to translations to other languages, and an Arabic search function. It also carries Quran recitations by 26 renowned reciters, so people can hear verses recited while looking at the written text.
Another important site is http://quran.ksu.edu.sa/ which carries the Quran Arabic text and its translations to various languages. It also posts the nine books of Sunna, which explain and authenticate ‘Hadith. In addition, it has a research function, which allows access to the major interpretations of the Holy Quran by early Islamic scholars, including Bin Katheer, Al-Qurtubi, and Al-Tabari. 
2. The Sunna
The Sunna represents the second source of Islamic teachings, after the Holy Quran. It includes sayings (‘Hadiths) and actions of the Prophet, pbbuh, as well as his approval of people’s sayings and actions. It also includes his explanation of the Quran verses in more details. In addition, the Sunna contains his teachings and his lifestyle, which were examples for Muslims to follow in various aspects of life.
The Prophet, pbbuh, generally prohibited his Companions from writing down anything he said, except the Holy Quran, to avoid any possibility of mixing his sayings with God’s revelations. However, he allowed it later. Thus, some of the Sunna was recorded during his lifetime but the majority of it was collected and recorded a long time after his death. Actually, Muslim scholars have developed an independent discipline for that purpose, known as ‘Hadith Science, which specializes in the collection, recording, scrutiny, authentication, and discussion of the ‘Hadith. 
An example of how the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, explained and summarized the Holy Quran, to God’s worshippers, is the ‘Hadith narrated by Companion Abdullah Bin (Son of) ‘Omar, mAbpwt both. He said that he heard the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, saying: “
"Islam has been built on five (pillars): The proclamation that there is no other god than Allah and that Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, performing the prayers, paying charity (Zakat), making the pilgrimage to the House (of Allah in Makkah), and fasting (during the month of) Ramadhan.” 
Thus, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, summarized the five Islamic ways of worship (‘ibadat), in one ‘Hadith, to make it easy on people. All of these ways of worship are mentioned in various chapters of the Holy Quran but the ‘Hadith puts them together, emphasizing them as the five major and manifest Islamic obligations. For example, the proclamation of faith was mentioned in verse 3: 18 and verse 40: 33, prayers and charity (Zakat) in verse 2: 110, fasting in verse 2: 183, and Haj in verse 3: 97. 
3. Research by Islamic Scholars
Research by Islamic scholars has become the third source of Islamic teachings. Most of these scholars are graduates of Islamic universities, who hold the highest degrees in Islamic studies. Thus, they are experts on the first two sources. They provide current interpretations of the Holy Quran, explain to the people the basic principles of their religion, and give rulings (fatwas) about new innovations, such as those which may happen in social, economic, financial, and medical aspects of life. For example, recreational addictive and harmful drugs were not mentioned in the Holy Quran. So, Islamic scholars pointed that there is more harm from using them than the sought benefits. As a result, such drugs should be treated the same way of treating alcoholic beverages. Allah, praise to Him, commanded Muslims to avoid them, in verse 5: 190, which was explained by the Prophet, pbbuh, as prohibition. 
Since the last few decades of the 20th Century, a category of Muslim social and natural scientists has emerged, tasking itself of demonstrating that the Holy Quran is full of scientific evidence, which shows that it is the Word of God, and that nobody else could have produced it. Thus, they have contributed to deepening the faith and increasing the understanding of Muslims of their religion, on the basis of science and reasoning. This is of great importance, particularly because of the internet age, which has enabled anti-religion forces to spread their falsehoods easily. In addition, it is a creative way to call for Allah among non-Muslims, particularly those who are highly educated, and those who have left their religions because of the contradiction with reasoning and basic scientific facts. This book aims at achieving that goal, as demonstrated in its various chapters, particularly the third and fourth Chapters.
مُسْتَوَيَاتُ العَقِيدَةِ الثَّلَاثِ:
الإسْلَامُ وَالإيمَانُ وَالإحْسَانُ
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
One day, the Angel Jibril (Gabriel), peace be to him, appeared as a man to the Messenger of Allah, Muhammed, peace and blessings be upon him (pbbuh), and his companions in the Medina mosque. The encounter became a very well-known 'Hadith (saying), narrated by the Second Caliph, Omar, may Allah be pleased with him.
Jibril asked the Messenger of Allah five questions about the meaning of Islam, Iman, I'hsan, the Hour, and the Hour signs. As he answered each question, Jibril complimented him saying that he told the truth. When Jibril left, the Messenger of Allah told his companion, who did not know the man, that he was Jibril who came to teach them their religion.
This 'Hadith not only summarized the major principles of God’s message of guidance to humanity, but it also attracted our attention to the three levels of faith: Islam, Iman, and I'hsan, which are the focus of this Chapter and the basis for organizing this book into its main parts.
Text of the Prophet's 'Hadith:
On the authority of Omar, who said: One day, while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black. No signs of journeying were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down by the Prophet, resting his knees against his (the Prophet's) and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said:
O Muhammed, tell me about Islam?
The Messenger of Allah said: Islam is to proclaim that there is no other god than Allah and Muhammed is the Messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the Zakat (charity), to fast (during the month of) Ramadhan, and to make the pilgrimage to the House (of God) if you are capable to do so.
He said: You have spoken rightly, and we were amazed at him asking him (the Prophet) and saying that he had spoken rightly (told the truth).
He said: Then, tell me about Iman?
He (the Prophet) said: It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and to believe in God's precise measurement and His just decrees on everything, including (what may be perceived as) good or bad.
He said: You have spoken rightly (told the truth).
(Jibril) said: Then, tell me about I'hsan?
He (the Prophet) said: It is to worship Allah as if you are seeing him, and while you do not see Him, He truly sees you.
He said: Then, tell me about the Hour?
He (the Prophet) said: The one questioned about it does not know more than the questioner.
He said: Then, tell me about its Signs?
He (the Prophet) said: That the slave-woman will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute sheep herdsmen constructing the highest buildings.
Then, (Jibril) left and I stayed for some time. Then he (the Prophet) said: “O Omar, do you know who the questioner was? I said: Allah and His Messenger know better. He said: He was Jibril (Gabriel), who came to teach you your religion. 
Thus, according to the above-mentioned ‘Hadith, there are three levels of the faith structure, a person can reach. The first level is Islam, which was explained by Prophet Muhammed (pbbuh) as observing the five major ways of worship ('Ibadat).
It follows that to be a Muslim, a person has to proclaim that there is no other god but Allah (praise to Him) and that Muhammed (pbbuh) is His Messenger. The importance of this proclamation of faith is that a person acknowledges the existence of Allah (God), praise to Him, as the Creator of the Universe, and that Muhammed (pbbuh) is the Messenger of God. This means that a person accepts the message of God revealed to humanity through him, as expressed in the Word of God (the Holy Quran) and the Sunna (his sayings, actions, and what he approved of).
Once a person pronounces the Islamic proclamation, then he/she proceeds to observe the Islamic obligations, namely to perform the five daily prayers, pay the annual Zakat (charity), fast during the month of Ramadhan, and make the pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah, if he/she is capable to do so physically and financially (These ways of worship were introduced in Chapter 1, “Islam: A Brief Introduction” but addressed in more details in the second part of this book).
It is important to note that these are ways of worshipping Allah ('Ibadat), as He wanted and commanded Muslims to do. He promised to reward those who worship Him and to punish those who don't do that on purpose.
In analyzing these Islamic ways of worshipping God, one discovers that all of them benefit the worshipper directly and his/her society in this life, then they are rewarded with Paradise in the hereafter (Such benefits are discussed in more details in Chapter 8, “The Relationship between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings” and in the second part of this book).
Before performing each one of the five prayers, a Muslim has to clean himself/herself through wudhu', by washing the mouth, nose, face hands, arms, ears, hair, and feet. Muslims also should take showers after sexual intercourse and keep their clothes clean. 
By praying five times a day at specific times, Muslims live in orderly fashion, budgeting their time, and literally exercising five times a day, doing certain movements that range between standing, bowing, prostrating, and sitting down on the floor. These unique movements function as an exercise for various body organs, by stretching muscles, tendons, and backbone. For example, bowing and prostrating push more blood to certain areas of the body, like the brain.
By paying the Zakat (charity) a Muslim assists the needy and contributes to the well-being of society. It is, at least, 2.5 percent of a person’s wealth. When properly given, the poor and the needy will not be left alone and behind in society. It is a systematic expression of compassion and social solidarity. The Zakat does not replace government taxes. However, it contributes to the welfare and well-being of society in areas not covered by government-funded projects.
Fasting during the month of Ramadhan, by abstaining from food, drinks, and sexual activity from dawn to the sunset, has tremendous benefits for the body and the soul of a worshipper. Fasting strengthens the control of the self over the body desires. It allows the rich to feel the suffering of the hungry poor and prompts them to share food with them when they break the fast at the sunset. By eating moderately then, many people lose weight, get rid of some of the accumulated fats throughout the year. In addition, fasting gives a break to the digestive system, after eleven months of continuous hard work.
Finally, pilgrimage (‘Haj) to the House of Allah in Makkah, is the climax of being a Muslim. It is a personal journey for God first, but it also gives great satisfaction to the pilgrim (‘Haaj), as he/she leaves everything in this life behind. Moreover, the pilgrimage to Makkah is a worldwide conference of millions of Muslims, where they meet there representing all nations, racial groups, and ethnic divisions (49: 13), for just few days. Therefore, Allah, praise to Him, instructed them to be loving, caring, and tolerant of each other. They are also instructed to avoid arguments and instead to praise Him for His countless benefits and bounties they have been enjoying (2: 197). 
By being a Muslim, as explained above, a person is promised God's rewards in this lower life and in the hereafter. Properly practiced, the Islamic ways of worship (‘ibadat) are beneficial to Muslims as individuals and as communities. However, for those who are more ambitious to be closer to God, to gain a higher level of his rewards, and to enjoy more intellectual happiness, they need to reach a higher level of faith than Islam, which is Iman, as we are told by verse 49: 14 of the Holy Quran, which states:
قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَـٰكِن قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ (الحجرات ، 49: 14).
The A'arab (desert dwellers) said, "We have believed." Say: "You have not believed,” but say 'We have submitted,” for faith has not yet entered your hearts (Al-'Hujurat, 49: 14).
In this Verse, the A'arab (desert dwellers) said, "We have believed." They meant to say: "We have reached the level of Iman." But Allah, praise to Him, told His Messenger to tell them that they still have not believed. That's why they instead should say: 'We have submitted (to Allah by becoming Muslims) because the second level of faith (Iman) has not yet entered their hearts.
So, what is that second level of faith (Iman)?
Iman is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, as we read in verse 4: 136 of the Holy Quran:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّـهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا (النساء ، 4: 136).
O You who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger, (in) the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray (Al-Nissa, 4: 136).
Iman is also the belief in God's precise measurement and His just decrees on everything, as we learn from the 'Hadith of the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, which has been mentioned.
This means that the second level of faith (Iman) is more of an intellectual nature than the first level (Islam), where a person is saved by worshipping Allah (God) through actions, that is, through performing the five obligations mentioned above. So, Iman comes by thinking about that which Allah told us about in the Holy Quran, including the many scientific statements, which were unknown at the time of revelation and until the 19th Century. Such thinking provides ample evidence that the Holy Quran is the Word of Allah, and that no human being can produce a book like it, or even a chapter, like any of its chapters. 
In other words, reaching the second level of faith (Iman), requires higher and deeper degrees of knowledge and acknowledgement. This includes a belief in the existence of Allah (God) and His angels, as well as in His Books, Messengers, the Last Day, and in His precise measurement and just decrees. So, Iman can be attained through the realization of the unseen, such as the existence of God, through the pieces of evidence He provided us with, such as the Holy Quran. However, many people believe in God, as unseen, without the need for physical or intellectual evidence, that is by intuition. Moreover, philosophers can reach the second level of faith by logic. They postulate that the existence of the creation must be the evidence for the existence of the Creator, Allah, praise to Him. 
Thus, a person reaching Iman (a Mumin: a believer) believes that not only Allah (God) exists but He, praise to Him, can do anything He wants. A Mumen believes in everything God told in the Holy Quran. He or she also believes that there are other intelligent creations of God than human beings, particularly angels. Among these are Jibril (Gabriel, the medium between God and His human Messengers), Mika-il (Michael, the angel of sustenance), Ezra-il (angel of death), Israfil (angel of the Trumpet), Radhwan (custodian of Paradise), and Malik (custodian of the Hellfire). In addition, there are many other categories of angels who perform tasks related to humans. Among these are Raqeeb and 'Ateed (the angels who keep records for our good deeds and bad deeds), Naakir, and Nakeer (the angels who question a human being briefly after death), and Sa-iq and Shaheed (the angels who organize people in groups and lead them during the events of the Last Day). A Mumen is a person who believes that these angels exist, and that we are affected by them. 
A Mumen also believes that God revealed His guidance to humanity in other Books, before the Holy Quran. These included the Su’huf (Papers) of Ibrahim (Abraham), the Torah (in the Old Testament), which was revealed to Moussa (Moses), the Zaboor (the Psalms), which was revealed to Prophet Dawood (David), and the Engel (the New Testament), the teachings of the Messiah, ‘Eissa Bin Mariam (Jesus Christ, the son of Mary), peace and blessings of Allah be upon all of them. These Books included the same message of guidance to humanity summarized in the Holy Quran. A Mumen, further, has the same and equal respect and love for all messengers of God, and does not consider one of them as better than the others.
A Mumen believes that this life is a test, in which all our deeds and activities are recorded by angels. We will be held accountable for the entire test when we meet our Creator on the Day of Reckoning. So, the belief in the Last Day is an acknowledgement of the inevitability of accountability and reckoning. It is an incentive for people to do good in this life in order to be rewarded by an everlasting life in Paradise, and a warning against doing bad in order to avoid punishment in the Hellfire. For more discussion about the four main events of the Last Day, see Chapter 24 of this book.
Further, a Mumen believes in God’s precise measurement and His just decrees (Al-Qadar wal Qadha). People are free in what they say and do, in the matters which they control or have authority over. However, there are other matters, which may not be understood by people, because these are beyond their control. Some of these matters are perceived as good, such as unexpected successes or fortunes. A Mumin’s response in this case is thanking Allah for receiving them. Other matters may be perceived as bad, despite the fact that these may turn to be good results later on, such as the actions of Al-Khadr’s actions, Moussa (Moses) perceived as evil, before knowing the rationale behind doing them (See verses18: 65-82).
Sometimes, some matters may result in outright bad consequences, such as death and destruction during war as well as natural and environmental disasters. In these cases, the bad consequences are the result of decisions made by people, whether by going to war to settle differences, or not taking the appropriate measures to avoid natural and environmental disasters. Allah, praise to Him, warned humanity to avoid such possible consequences, as both innocent people and their oppressors will be affected alike (8: 25).
Finally, believers (Muminoon) thank Allah in all circumstances but they are also expected to use their time, knowledge, wealth, and energy with the best way possible, during their first life on Earth, because they are going to be questioned about all these qualities in the hereafter. This means that believers (Muminoon) should not surrender to the upheavals, natural or environmental disasters, diseases, or any difficulties facing them. They should do their best to avoid them. Thus doing, they practice their free will, which does not contradict with God’s circumventing foreknowledge of their choices, as discussed in Chapter 25 of this book. 
I'hsan is the highest of the three levels of faith and the closest to pleasing God. It is to worship Allah as if you see Him. While you do not really see Him, He truly sees you. Then, I'hsan means that a Mu'hsin (a person who practices I’hsan) is sure that Allah is seeing him/her in everything he/she says or does. Therefore, a Mu'hsin does his/her best to say and do only that which pleases Allah and conforms to His commands. This is the level of righteousness, perfection, as well as doing and saying the ultimate good for the sake of goodness, to the person’s best knowledge and ability.
The noun "I'hsan" in Arabic is a derivative of the verb "a’hsana," which means doing things better. Thus, the literal linguistic meaning of I'hsan is saying the best, as expressed in verse 41: 33 of the Holy Quran. It is also doing the best, which is observing God’s commands (For more information about God's commands, see the first Chapter of the fourth part of this book, “Islamic Law, Shari'a: Prohibition, Don't Do, and Do Commands).
The noble meanings of I’hsan are expressed in many verses of the Holy Quran. Throughout His Book, Allah, praise to Him, commands believers to practice I’hsan in words and actions and in the treatment of parents. He announces His love for Mu’hsins, assures them that they should have neither fear nor sadness, and promises them with the best rewards in the hereafter. 
The objective of mentioning the three levels of faith is to motivate the human self to pursue the course of elevation from one level to the other. As humans struggle to be better in their words and actions, they not only gain the best physical and spiritual benefits in this life but they also get the contentment and mercy of their Creator, who promised them an everlasting life in His Paradise, in the hereafter.
and the Holy Quran Is His Message to Humanity
الدَلِيلُ العِلْمِيُ عَلَى وِجُودِ اللهِ
وَعَلَى أنَّ القُرْآنَ الْكَرِيمَ هُوَ رِسَالَتُهُ لِلْبَشَرِيَّةِ
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
At the beginning of the 21st Century, many people in the world no longer believe in God. Even some of those who profess such belief are not sure. Others have a distorted belief, which makes them behave in misguided and dangerous ways. In brief, there is a lot of ignorance on this Planet, at this time, about the Creator of life and about His message to humanity, which has been told in the religious Holy Books.
But before addressing the problem of misguided believers, it is more essential to address the question of atheism, or the belief that God does not exist in the first place. This belief has developed as a result of lack of scientific evidence in teaching about God. Many world religions involve illogical myths and weird rituals that belittle the human mind, leading to the disbelief that these myths and rituals are from a Supreme Being, who is supposed to be more intelligent than the human beings He has created, and as a result is worthy of being worshipped by them.
Another important reason for atheism is that leaders of many religions, including the major ones, put themselves in a collision course with science. This has alienated the most educated and most intelligent people and made them susceptible to atheism, indifference, or at least not taking religion seriously.
So, how can this problem of God’s existence be resolved?
To convince the most intelligent beings on this Planet that God does exist, scientific evidence supporting this fact has to be brought to the discussion.
The Holy Quran (pronounced in two separate syllables Qur - an) is full of such evidence. Actually, the Islamic Holy Book can be broadly divided into two parts, in terms of content. The first involves the scientific evidence that its ultimate author is the Creator of life Himself, in order to convince humans that He exists and that the Holy Quran is His message to humanity. The second part involves His teachings, the Shari'a, which if followed by humans will lead them to happiness in this life and in the everlasting hereafter.
The story of life on Planet Earth, including human life, is told in the Holy Quran in a way that would light up the eyes of scientists if they read it. It’s almost the same story, which is told to students of biology. It leaves no doubt about the fact that life started in a very simple way a long time ago and kept evolving ever since (See Chapter 4, “Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran”).
The scientific story of creation of life is just one example of how the Holy Quran convinces its readers that no human on this Planet could have authored this Book. Many of the scientific facts revealed became known only in the last century or so. The Messenger of God, Prophet Muhammed (pbbuh) was an illiterate man. It was impossible for him or for any other human being more than 1400 years ago to know about such facts.
This Chapter is divided into three parts. The first includes examples of verses, containing facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about the creation of the heavens and the Earth, as well as the existence of intelligent beings, other than humans. The second part includes examples of verses, mentioning facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about life on Earth, in relation to the darkness of ocean waters, formation of clouds, plant pairs, and sex of insects. The third part of this Chapter provides information about the numerical miracle in the design of the Holy Quran. This is an emerging research area, which demonstrates, through so many examples, that the letters, words, and chapters of the Holy Quran are designed and arranged according to numerical relationships. As a result, this Book could not have been authored by any human being. It’s the Word of God and His Message to humanity.
First, examples of verses, containing facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about the creation of the heavens and the Earth, as well as the existence of intelligent beings, other than humans:
1. Allah, praise to Him, tells us that His Throne had been on water before He created the heavens and the Earth.
وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ وَكَانَ عَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ (هود ، 11: 7).
And it is He who created the heavens and the Earth in six days - and His Throne had been upon water (Hood, 11: 7).
This means that water preceded other elements, and consequently the formation of our solar system, as scientists concluded in their most recent research, in 2014. They found that some of the water we have is older than the Earth age, which is estimated at about 4.6 billion years. It is even older than the Sun. This is a confirmation to this verse, and consequently a piece of evidence that the Holy Quran is the Word of God.
In interpreting this verse, Al-Tabari mentioned a 'Hadith in which the “illiterate” Messenger of Allah was asked, "Where had our Lord been before He created the heavens and the Earth. He said that "He was in clouds, and there was air above and below Him. Then, He created His Throne on Water." The three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer), also mentioned an explanation by Ibn 'Abbas, who said, "The water was over the wind." 
2. Verse 21: 30 tells us that the heavens and the Earth were a joined entity. Then, Allah splintered them (causing them to scatter in space). The verse also tells us that Allah created every living thing (in them) out of water, which was already there.
أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنبياء ، 21: 30).
Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the Earth were a joined entity, and We splintered (separated) them and made from water every living thing? Then, will they not believe? (Al-Anbiya, 21: 30).
At the beginning of the 20th Century, some astrophysicists estimated the age of the universe between 10 and 20 billion years. However, more recent estimates date it back to about 13.8 billion years. This is according to the Big Bang theory, which is agreed upon by most contemporary astrophysicists. Though the theory described the beginning of the universe as a result of a big bang, astrophysicists now agree that it was an event, not necessarily a bang.
This is evidence about the accuracy of the verb "fataqa" used in the verse, which refers to splintering a substance (like ice), causing it to scatter into smaller pieces.
Astrophysicists tried to explain how the event happened, as a result of the interaction between elements, energy, and time, without mentioning the logical existence of God, who caused the event to happen. The evidence that He did, is that He told us about it in this verse, with this accuracy of the description, many centuries before the existence of astrophysics. He is the First, the Originator, the Creator of the Heavens and Earth, the Great, and Most High (See Chapter 11, "Allah, as He described Himself in the Holy Quran”). 
3. Verse 51: 47 tells us that Allah built the heaven, which is continuously expanding.
وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بَنَيۡنَـٰهَا بِأَيۡيْدٍ۬ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُون (الذاريات ، 51: 47).
We built the heaven with (Our) hands, and We are expanding (it) (Al-Dhariyat, 51: 47).
In this verse, Allah (God) is telling us that He built heaven, using the past tense of the verb (built), which means that the act of building was completed in the past. Then, He tells us that He is expanding it, using the present continuous tense of the verb, to indicate that the expansion of heaven is continuously happening.
While the three renowned Islamic scholars pointed to the vastness of heaven, astrophysicists of the 20th Century were very specific about this scientific fact, describing it as "the expanding universe," which is precisely described as such in the Holy Quran. 
4. Verse 67: 3 tells us that Allah created seven heavens, as straight layers, one over the other, without a faulty difference between them, whether you look at them once or more than once.
الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا مَّا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ مِن تَفَاوُتٍ فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ هَلْ تَرَىٰ مِن فُطُورٍ (الملك ، 67: 3).
(It is Allah) Who created seven heavens, as layers (strata). You do not see in the creation of the Beneficent any inconsistency. So, return (your) vision (to the sky), do you see any breaks? (Al-Mulk, 67: 3).
The scientific fact mentioned in this verse, about heavens as parallel layers, has been confirmed by many astrophysicists, who argue that there are several parallel universes. The only difference is that they use the word "universe" instead of the word "heaven" mentioned in this verse. 
5. Verse 84: 19 is related in meaning to the above-mentioned verse 67: 3, particularly in describing heavens as parallel layers, one over the other, but it adds a prophecy about the human space travel, from one layer of heavens to another.
لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ (الإنشقاق ، 84: 19).
You will surely ride (travel) from one layer (of heavens) to another layer (Al-Inshiqaq, 84: 19).
The three renowned Islamic interpreters of the Holy Quran agreed with this meaning, by mentioning the interpretations of Ibn 'Abbas and Al-Shi'bi, who limited space travel from one heaven to another to the Messenger of Allah. Al-Qurtubi added a question, wondering if the Verse was a prophecy about the Prophet's Night ـJourney (Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj).
In answering Al-Qurtubi's question, it's clear that Surat Al-Inshiqaq (Chapter 84 of the Holy Quran), including verse 19, was a Makkan Chapter, and it was revealed after the Night Journey, which was also described in Surat Al-Najm (Chapter 53). If the Prophet alone was the one intended by this Verse, then the verb used would be in the past tense. However, the verb used in this Verse is in the present tense, which also conveys the future. This means that it is a prophecy about human space travel, in general, from one planet to another, from one solar system to another, and from one galaxy to another. 
6. Verse 55: 33 is related to the above-mentioned verse (84: 19), as it contains an invitation, which amounts to a prophecy, for humans and Jinn to attempt space travel.
يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَن تَنفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَانفُذُوا ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلْطَانٍ (الرحمن ، 55: 33).
O company of Jinn and humans, if you are able to penetrate (pass) through the zones of the heavens and the Earth, then penetrate. You will not penetrate except by power (of science) (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 33).
This prophecy was fulfilled for the Jinn first, as we are told by verse 72: 8, that the Jinn have reached heaven, but its powerful guards repelled them with burning flames. We take this information from the Holy Quran as a given because we are not qualified yet, as humans at this stage of our knowledge, to investigate it.
وَأَنَّا لَمَسْنَا السَّمَاءَ فَوَجَدْنَاهَا مُلِئَتْ حَرَسًا شَدِيدًا وَشُهُبًا (الجن ، 72: 8).
And we (Jinn) have touched the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames (Al-Jin, 72: 8).
Then, this prophecy started to be fulfilled for humans during the second half of the 20th Century (14th Century of Hijra, Islamic Calendar), when the Soviets and Americans started their space travels, followed by Europeans, then Asians afterwards.
For centuries, readers of the Holy Quran, including the three renowned interpreters, could not interpret this Verse as a future possibility of human space travel between heavenly bodies. However, this issue has become a normal bit of news in the media nowadays, as space travels occur almost monthly, not only for orbiting Earth and docking to the international space station, but also for the exploration of outer space, other planets, and even going beyond our solar system. 
7. Verse 65: 12 tells us that Allah created seven heavens and seven Earth-like planets.
اللَّـهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّـهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا (الطلاق ، 65: 12).
It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the Earth like of them (seven planets like Earth). (His) command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge (Al-Talaq, 65: 12).
This Verse means that there are seven heavens inhabited by angels, and that God's commands descend among them. Likewise, there are seven planets like Earth, inhabited by others of God's creatures, and that God's commands also descend among them.
The three renowned Islamic interpreters agreed that there are seven Earth-like planets. Al-Tabari interpreted the Verse, saying: "There is no disagreement about that the heavens are seven, layered one over the other, as evidenced from the 'Hadith of Al-Issra Wal Mi'raj (the Prophet's Night Journey), and other 'Hadiths."
Then, Al-Tabari added that "there are also seven Earth-like planets. The majority of scholars agree that these planets are also layered, one over the other, and that the distance between one Earth-like planet and anther is like the distance between one heaven and another, and that there are God's creatures inhabiting each one of them."
Thus, this Verse is an invitation for researchers to look for these Earth-like planets, discover them, and their intelligent inhabitants. It's thrilling that we are living at a time in which space scientists are actively searching for evidence about the existence of life on other planets, in our solar system, as well as in other solar systems in our galaxy, and even in other galaxies. The most important piece of evidence for life they look for is whether water exists on a planet or not, which is in total agreement with the Holy Quran Verse 21: 30 mentioned above.
On February 22, 2017, NASA published a report about the discovery of a solar system, which scientists called Trappist-1. It is located in the in the constellation Aquarius, which is about 39.6 light years (about 235 trillion miles) away from our Earth. The report mentioned that there are seven planets the size of our Earth, all orbiting their sun, with a possibility of water on all of them, and the possibility of life on three of them, at least. Though the report is not giving absolute evidence of water or life on these planets, it opens the door for the possibility of discovering that in the future, whether in this group of planets or in others. Thus, this NASA discovery supports the scientific facts mentioned in this Verse. 
8. Verse 14: 19 tells us that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions.
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللّهَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِالْحقِّ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَأْتِ بِخَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ (إبراهيم ، 14: 19).
Have you not seen that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions? If He wills, He can do away with you and bring a new creation (Ibrahim, 14: 19).
Allah used the Arabic word "’haq" to describe how He created the heavens and the Earth. In Arabic dictionaries, "’haq" means right, truth, justice, and balance. It is also the opposite of wrong and falsehood. Thus, the meaning of the Verse is that Allah created the heavens and the Earth with the right proportions. This refers to the precision and perfect balance in the relationships between components of the Universe.
In its orbit around the Sun, the Earth occupies an ideal location, which has enabled life to start, continue, and flourish on it. The wonderful diversity of the fauna and flora on this planet is the result of its optimal and balanced relationship with the Sun, the Moon, and other planets of the solar system. In particular, life on Earth flourished as a result of turning around itself, which creates the 24-hour cycle of day and night. It is also a result of its annual orbit around the Sun, which leads to the seasonal changes. Moreover, the different geographical regions have been created in reaction to the differences in the sunlight reaching these regions.
Water constitutes 70% of Earth and the human body as well, which is another example of balance and precision between the Earth and its inhabitants. There is also a balance in the relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide, both of which are necessary for plants and animals on the planet. Further, there is a balance between the ozone layer and other gases, particularly those resulting from the industrial pollution. If this balance is disturbed, the ozone layer may lose its capability to protect the Earth from the harmful cosmic radiations.
Thus, all these examples refer to the precision and balance in the components of the Universe, and among them, as expressed by the word "haq" (right proportions) mentioned in this Verse. 
9. Verse 79: 30 tells us that the Earth is egg-shaped (not flat, as some humans believed, or even a perfect circular globe), which is a scientific fact, just recently discovered.
وَالْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ دَحَاهَا (النازعات ، 79: 30).
And the Earth, after that, He made it egg-shaped (Al-Nazi'at, 79: 30).
The scientific fact included in this Verse is specifically mentioned in the verb (da'haha, دَحَٮٰهَآ). Many translators incorrectly translated it as "extended it." The correct translation is that He made it egg-shaped. The evidence for this meaning of the verb is that the noun "da'hya" is used by North African Arabs in reference to an "egg." The author of this book heard it by himself, during his stay in Libya, from 1972 to 1976.
Allah wanted to describe to humans how the Earth looks like, using something they were familiar with at that time, which is the egg of a chicken or a bird. For the later generations of humans, the egg shape is the most accurate description of how the Earth looks like, as it has been discovered recently that the Earth is less than a perfect circular globe. Today, we have wonderful photos of our beautiful blue planet, showing it in a circular shape, taken by astronauts, satellites, space telescopes, and the international space station.
This scientific fact was not known to Arabs before Islam, but many Islamic scholars of natural sciences mentioned it in their writings. It's interesting that the three renowned interpreters did not know about the meaning of da'hya as an egg. Otherwise, they would have mentioned that meaning in their interpretations, which usually include as many meanings as possible. 
10. The following verses tell us that the heavens are inhabited by intelligent beings (the angels), who submit to their Lord, Allah, and worship him as do many people on Earth.
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاءُ قَدِيرٌ (الشورى ، 42: 29).
And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent (Al-Shoora, 42: 29).
وَلَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلأرۡضِۖ ڪُلٌّ۬ لَّهُ ۥ قَـٰنِتُونَ (الروم ، 30: 26).
And to Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and the Earth. All are to Him devoutly obedient (Al-Roo, 30: 26).
أفَغَيۡرَ دِينِ ٱللَّهِ يَبۡغُونَ وَلَهُ ۥۤ أَسۡلَمَ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلأرۡضِ طَوۡعً۬ا وَڪَرۡهً۬ا وَإِلَيۡهِ يُرۡجَعُونَ (آل عمران ، 3: 83).
So, is it other than the religion of Allah they desire, while to Him have submitted (all) those within the heavens and the Earth, willingly or by compulsion, and to Him they will be returned? (Al-'Imran, 3: 83).
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلأًرۡضِ وَٱلطَّيۡرُ صَـٰٓفَّـٰتٍ۬ كُلٌّ۬ قَدۡ عَلِمَ صلاتَهُ ۥ وَتَسۡبِيحَهُ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِمَا يَفۡعَلُونَ (النور ، 24: 41).
Do you not see that Allah is exalted by whoever is within the heavens and the Earth and (by) the birds with wings spread (in flight)? Each (of them) has known his prayer and (his) exalting (of Allah), and Allah is Knower (Knowledgeable) of what they do (Al-Noor, 24: 41).
The following verses also tell us that there are other intelligent beings, who inhabit what is in between the heavens and the Earth, (the Jinn). Some of these also submit to their Lord, Allah, and worship Him, as many humans do on Earth.
قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٢٣﴾ قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ ﴿٢٤﴾ (الشورى ، 26: 23-24).
(The) Pharaoh said, "And what is the Lord of the worlds?" (23) (Moussa, Moses) said, "The Lord of the heavens and the Earth and what is in between them, if you should be convinced" (24) (Al-Shoora, 26: 23-24).
قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآنًا عَجَبًا (الجن ، 72: 1).
Say, (O Muhammed), "It has been revealed to me that a group of the Jinn listened and said, 'Indeed, we have heard an amazing Quran” (Al-Jin, 72: 1).
وَأَنَّا لَمَسْنَا السَّمَاءَ فَوَجَدْنَاهَا مُلِئَتْ حَرَسًا شَدِيدًا وَشُهُبًا (الجن ، 72: 8).
And we (Jinn) have touched (reached) the heaven but found it filled with powerful guards and burning flames (Al-Jin, 72: 8).
وَأَنَّا مِنَّا الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَمِنَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ فَمَنْ أَسْلَمَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ تَحَرَّوْا رَشَدًا (الجن ، 72: 14).
And among us (Jinn) are Muslims (who submit to Allah), and among us are the unjust. And whoever have become Muslims - those have sought out the right course (Al-Jin, 72: 14).
The above verses tell us that there are intelligent beings in heavens (the angels), who believe in Allah (God) and worship Him. The verses also tell us that there are other intelligent beings, who live in between the heavens and the Earth (the Jinn). Some of them believe in Allah and worship Him but others do not. Thus, these verses attract our attention to the possibility of communication and interaction between us and them in the future, as did happen in the past with Prophet Sulayman (Solomon).
وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيْمَانَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ (النمل ، 27: 17).
And gathered for Sulayman (Solomon) were his soldiers of the Jinn, humans, and birds, and they were (marching) in rows (Al-Naml, 27: 17).
The possibility of communication and interaction with aliens from other solar systems has increased recently with the advances in human space discovery endeavors, such as the various kinds of telescopes on Earth and in space, and the various devices sent to outer space. There is also a possibility that such intelligent beings may reach us first before we reach them, whether in communication or in actual arrival of their astronauts to our planet. When this happens, it should not be a surprise to people on Earth, particularly to the believers, who know about this issue from God's Book, the Holy Quran. Their arrival should not be a shock, which shakes people's faith. To the contrary, if these intelligent beings are believers, we should rejoice the event, which may lead to benefiting humanity. However, if they are not believers, then we need to be careful about dealing with them, as they may cause us harm. 
Second, examples of verses, including facts just explained or discovered recently by scientists, about life on Earth, in relation to the darkness of ocean waters, formation of clouds, plant pairs, and sex of insects:
11. Verse 24: 40, provides us with an accurate description of deep-water levels of darkness in the ocean.
أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُّجِّيٍّ يَغْشَاهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ۚ ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَا أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا ۗ وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّـهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُّورٍ (النور ، 24: 40).
Or (the Unbelievers' state) is like layers of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by clouds: Layers of darkness, one above another, if a person stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For anyone to whom Allah does not make light, he has no light (Al-Noor, 24: 40).
This scientific fact was discovered only few decades ago. Nobody could dive deep enough in the ocean, more than 1400 years ago, and come back to tell about what he/she saw there. Only in the 20th Century, humans were capable of seeing that after using their military submarines. For the general public, this happened in the 1980s, when the French oceanographer Philippe Causteau and his crew showed us some videos about the upper parts of the ocean depth, in their TV series.
Now, we know that there are three levels of light and darkness in ocean waters. The first level extends from the water surface to about 600 feet down, where the sunlight can penetrate enough to enable us to see. The second level extends from 600 feet to about 3,000 feet under the sea surface, which allows only a small degree of the sunlight and consequently a very small vision capability. The third level starts below 3,000 feet, which represents 90% of the ocean waters. This is the level of complete darkness, where a person may not be able to see his hand, as accurately described in this Verse. 
12. Verses 30: 48 and 24: 43 provide an accurate description of the water cycle, from winds to clouds, then to rain.
اللَّـهُ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَابًا فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِي السَّمَاءِ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُ كِسَفًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ ۖ فَإِذَا أَصَابَ بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ (الروم ، 30: 48).
It is Allah Who sends the Winds, and they raise the Clouds. Then, He spreads them in the sky as He wills, and breaks them into fragments, until you see raindrops coming out from the midst of it. When He makes them reach whoever He wills of his servants, then they rejoice! (Al-Room, 30: 48).
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ يُزْجِي سَحَابًا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيْنَهُ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ رُكَامًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِن بَرَدٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُ عَن مَّن يَشَاءُ ۖ يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْقِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِ (النور ، 24: 43).
Do not you see that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? Then, you will see rain coming out of it. And He sends down hail from the sky mountains (of clouds). He strikes whom He wills with it, and He turns it away from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning is close to blinding the sights (of people) (Al-Noor, 24: 43).
These two verses accurately describe the water cycle, which starts with the evaporation of water from oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes, as a result of the sun heat. The wind helps water vapor molecules to become more condensed, as clouds. Then, winds carry clouds to other places, and up to the colder and higher layers of air, where water molecules become more condensed. At that point, water molecules become too heavy for the wind to carry, and drop down, in what we call as rain. Concerning hail, it forms as a result of more condensation of water molecules, when these are carried by wind to higher and consequently colder layers of the atmosphere. There, water molecules freeze as icy balls, which drop down as hail because clouds cannot carry them anymore. 
13. Verse 36: 36 mentions that Allah, praise to Him, has created pairs for reproduction purposes, including human and plant pairs, as well as others unknown to us.
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْأَزْوَاجَ كُلَّهَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الْأَرْضُ وَمِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ (يس ، 36: 36).
Exalted is He who created all pairs - from what the earth grows, and from themselves and from that which they do not know (Ya Seen, 36: 36).
In addition to this verse, which mentions the word “pairs,” there are other verses, which also mention it as singular (pair) and plural (pairs). These words refer to the male and female elements, which are necessary for the sexual reproduction in humans as well as in plants.
The word "pairs" mentioned in the above verses refers to the sexual reproduction in plants through the interaction between the male and female elements. This pairing can be found in two separate plants producing the same fruit (such as date-palm trees), or in two different flowers in the same plant (such as cucumbers), or in the same flower containing male and female organs (pistils and stamens), such as tomatoes. Insects and winds play a major role in carrying the male pollens to fertilize the female organs of various kinds of plants. These facts became accurately known recently, after the establishment of modern sciences and the invention of the telescope. 
14. The following verses mention eight kinds of insects. The first four verses mention bees, ants, mosquitos, and spiders, as singular female nouns. The other four verses mention flies, butterflies, locusts, and lice are mentioned in the plural form. This difference, in referring to these insects, represents scientific facts, which were discovered more than 13 centuries after revelation, when microscopes were invented, allowing scientists to distinguish male and female insects from each other. 
The first four kinds of insects were accurately mentioned in the singular female noun because only females are the active workers. It is the female bee, which works outside the nest and produces honey. Likewise, it is the female ant, which works outside the colony. Moreover, it is the female mosquito, which attacks humans and animals to suck their blood. Finally, it is the female spider, which builds its web-house to hunt other insects. Concerning the male bees, ants, and spiders, they are either killed or die after mating. For the male mosquito, it does not have the sucking needle that the female has. Consequently, it does not bite humans and animals to suck their blood as the female mosquito does.
In Verses 16: 68-69, there are three words that refer to the bee in the singular female form, as expressed in the three commands "ittakhidthi," (اتَّخِذِي) "Kuli," (كُلِي) and "fasluki" (فَاسْلُكِي) (take, eat, and follow). Verse 27: 18 refers to the female ant with the singular female noun "namlaton." Likewise, Verse 2: 26 refers to the female mosquito with the singular female noun "ba'oudhatan." Verse 29: 41 refers to the spider in the singular female form, as expressed in past tense of the verb ""ittakhadthat (she took).
In Verses 16: 68-69, we are told that it is the female bee that makes honey, a very recent bit of knowledge for humans. We know now that male bees die after mating with the queen and live only for about 90 days. Only female bees survive to be the workers, which gather nectar and make honey. This bit of knowledge could never be known to humans before the invention and use of microscopes.
وَأَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ أَنِ اتَّخِذِي مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًا وَمِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُونَ ﴿٦٨﴾ ثُمَّ كُلِي مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ فَاسْلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا يَخْرُجُ مِن بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿٦٩﴾ (النحل ، 16: 68-69).
And your Lord inspired the (female) bees to take (build) its houses (hives) on mountains, trees, and in (people's) gardens (68)
Then (you female bee) eat from all the fruits and (you female bee) follow the ways of your Lord laid down (for you). There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing (cure) for people. In that, (there) is a sign for a people who give thought (Al-Na'hl, 16: 68-69).
In Verse 27: 18, there is a reference to a female ant speaking to other ants, which is also a recent bit of knowledge. We know now that male ants die after mating with the queen, and only female ants survive to be the workers, just like the case with bees mentioned above. This bit of knowledge could have never been known to humans before the invention and use of microscopes and the advanced studies in biology.
قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُوا مَسَاكِنَكُمْ ۡ (النمل ، 27: 18).
" ... a female ant said: "O you ants enter your dwellings" (Al-Nahl, 27: 18).
Verse 2: 26 refers to the mosquito with the singular female noun "ba'oudhatan."
إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا (البقرة ، 2: 26).
Indeed, Allah is not timid to present an example - that of a female mosquito or what is bigger than it (Al-Baqara, 2: 26).
This reference to the mosquito in the female noun form distinguishes it from male mosquitos, for its different characteristics. Female mosquitos live twice the life of males. It is the one which sucks human and animal blood, which is necessary for production of its eggs. It is capable of doing that because it has a sucking needle that males do not have. That's why males feed on plant food.
Verse 29: 41 refers to the spider in the singular female form, as expressed in the past tense of the verb ""ittakhadthat (she took), because it is the female spider, which builds its web-house to hunt other insects. Males do not participate in building the house or are allowed to live in it. That's why the Verse refers to the house as the female spider house.
Moreover, the Verse tells us that spider house is the weakest of houses, in a reference to the familial relationship between the female spider and her male mate. We know now that female spiders eat their male mates after the sexual intercourse. In some kinds of spiders, females lure males for mating in order to eat them. These scientific facts could not be known until the invention of microscopes and the establishment of the modern biology science.
مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ (العنكبوت ، 29: 41).
The example of those who take allies other than Allah is like that of the (female) spider, who takes a home. And indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the (female)spider, if they only knew (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 41).
The other four kinds of insects, which are mentioned in the Holy Quran, are referred to in the plural noun form, applying to both males and females, reflecting scientific facts about them, which were discovered only lately after the invention of the microscope and the establishment of the modern biology science. In these four kinds of insects, both males and females work, and females do not kill males, as in the cases of the four species mentioned above.
Verse 22: 73 mentions flies twice, in the plural form, reflecting a scientific fact. Biologist discovered that the fly life span is about 35 days, for both males and females. That is why the Verse referred to both of them in plural, without distinguishing one of them from the other.
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ لَن يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ وَإِن يَسْلُبْهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيْئًا لَّا يَسْتَنقِذُوهُ مِنْهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالْمَطْلُوبُ (الحج ، 22: 73).
O people, an example is presented, so listen to it. Indeed, those you invoke besides Allah will never create flies, even if they gathered together for that purpose. And if the flies should steal away from them a (tiny) thing, they could not recover it from (the flies). Weak are the pursuer and pursued (Al-'Haj, 22: 73).
Verse 101: 4 describes how people will look like when they year the first blow of the Trumpet, ushering the beginning of the Hour, and starting the Last Day. At that moment, people will be disoriented and dispersed on Earth like the butterflies.
يَوْمَ يَكُونُ النَّاسُ كَالْفَرَاشِ الْمَبْثُوثِ (القارعة ، 101: 4).
It is the Day when people will be like the butterflies, dispersed (Al-Qari'a, 101: 4).
The Verse mentions the butterflies in the plural noun form, reflecting a scientific fact. There is no difference between male and female butterflies in their life span or work. Females are not distinguished from males in any important characteristic. Therefore, the plural noun form was used in the Verse.
Finally, in Verse 7: 133, locusts and lice are also mentioned in the plural noun form for each one of them, reflecting a scientific fact. There is no difference between males and females, in these two species, in their life span or stages of development.
فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الطُّوفَانَ وَالْجَرَادَ وَالْقُمَّلَ وَالضَّفَادِعَ وَالدَّمَ آيَاتٍ مُّفَصَّلَاتٍ فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا مُّجْرِمِينَ (الأعراف ، 7: 133).
So, We sent upon them the flood, locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, as distinct signs, but they were arrogant and were a criminal people (Al-A'araf, 7: 133).
Locusts are also mentioned in another verse of the Holy Quran (54: 7), which describes people's condition after the second blow of the Trumpet, after they rise up from under the earth to its surface. They will be like the spreading locusts.
خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ (القمر ، 54: 7).
Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading (Al-Qamar, 54: 7).
Scientists estimate the size of spreading locusts about 10 billion in each swarm. This is the closest image that we can imagine about the number of people who will come out of earth for Judgment, in the Last day. They will come out in waves, as Verse 78: 20 tells us:
يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَتَأْتُونَ أَفْوَاجًا (النبأ ، 78: 18).
The Day the Trumpet is blown, you will come forth in waves (Al-Naba, 78: 18).
The world population now is more than 7 billion people, which is only one wave. Only God knows how many waves of humans will be there.
15. The topic of the scientific facts in the Holy Quran has been addressed in many books, book chapters, and articles, which can be considered supplemental to this Chapter. These include various chapters of this book, particularly the fourth Chapter, “Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran.” Examples of other works, which address this topic, are those authored by Zaghloul El-Naggar, Maurice Bucaille, Ibrahim and others, Shah Alam, Ebrahim Azarpour, Yahiya Emerick, and Mohammad Humayoun Khan. 
16. Since the last few decades of the 14th Hijri Century (20th Christian Century), a new category of Muslim researchers has emerged with a focus on the numerical miracles of the Holy Quran. However, their works are still at the early stages, incremental, selective, and without agreed upon methods of research. However, their findings showed that the letters, words, verses, and chapters of the Holy Quran are mentioned in calculated numbers and in a tight numerical system. Thus, their works demonstrate that it is the Book of God, which could have never been authored by anyone else, except Him, as stated in verse 17: 88.
Say, "If humans and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like of it, even if they backed up each other (with help and support)" (Al-Issra, 17: 88).
Moreover, their research findings provide evidence that such tight numerical system of the Holy Quran represents a guarantee that the Book of God will stay intact, without any changes, alterations, additions, or omissions. If any changes happen, then the numerical balance in the relationships of letters, words, verses, and chapters would have been affected, which would be discovered by researchers. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, has guarded His Book by making it self-preserving, as stated in verse 15: 9.
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ (الحجر ، 15: 9).
Indeed, We sent down the Quran and We will be its guardian (Al-‘Hijr, 15: 9).
Examples of Research on the Numerical Miracles of the Holy Quran
There have been hundreds of researchers, who focus on the numerical miracles of the Holy Quran. Here are brief introductions about five of them, just as examples, without any implication that other researchers are less important in their work or findings.
Rashad Khalifa (1973, 1981) was the first researcher in this category to discover the importance of number 19, as evidence for the tight numerical system in the Holy Quran. He started with the first verse of the Book of God, Al-Basmala. He found that it is composed of 19 letters. He also found that each of its words is repeated in the Holy Quran with a number, which is a perfect multiplier of the number 19. Further, he found that the separate letters, at the start of 29 chapters (Suras) of the Holy Quran, have specific numerical indications. For example, the separate letters (muqatta’at): Alif, Lam, Meem (A L M), at the start of Chapters 2, 3, 29, 30, 31, and 32, are repeated in the Holy Quran 9,899 times, which is a multiplier of number 19. The findings of his research encouraged many researchers to follow his path, in their attempts to find more letter and word counts, which are multiples of number 19, and number 7 later on. However, despite his pioneering work, which triggered research in this area, Rashad Khalifa started to focus more on supporting his theory by any means than accepting his research findings. This led him to twist the data, to the extent that he suggested the exclusion of two verses, which did not suit his calculations. 
Bassam Jarrar (2003) addressed the topic of number 19, showing its importance for the numerical miracle of the Holy Quran. He also used the gematrical (Jummal) calculation method, in assigning specific numerical values to the researched letters and verses. For example, he demonstrated that there is a numerical resemblance between the words “Adam” and “Eissa” (Jesus), both of which are mentioned in verse 3: 59, as follows:
إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّـهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ ۖ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ" (آل عمران ، 3: 59).
Indeed, the example of ‘Eissa (Jesus) to Allah is like that of Adam. He created him of the earth matter (dirt or soil); then He said to him, "Be," and he was (Al-‘Imran, 3: 59).
He observed that the name of “‘Eissa” (Jesus), peace be upon him, is repeated in the Holy Quran 25 times. So does the name of “Adam,” peace be upon him, which is also repeated 25 times. Counting the word “’Eissa” from the beginning of the Holy Quran until verse 3: 59, he found that it is repeated 7 times, so does the word “Adam,” which is also repeated 7 times.
He also looked for another resemblance, in another chapter, which he found in Surat Maryam (Chapter 19). It’s known that Maryam was the daughter of ‘Imran, and the first resemblance was in Surat Al-‘Imran (Chapter 3), where the first moment of the creation of ‘Eissa (the inception) was mentioned. However, more details about his creation came in Chapter 19.
The word ‘Eissa (Jesus) was mentioned in Surat Maryam (Chapter 19) only once, in verse 34, and that was the 19th time, counting from the beginning of the Holy Quran text. That was also the case for the word “Adam,” which was mentioned once, in verse 58 of the same Chapter, and that was also the 19th time, counting from the beginning of the Holy Quran text.
Thus, in Chapter 19, the words “’Eissa” was mentioned in the Holy Quran for the 19th time, so was the word “Adam.” Moreover, if we count starting from verse 34, which mentions ‘Eissa, peace be to him, we find that verse 58 (which mentions Adam, peace be upon him) is the 25th verse. This is one more confirmation about the similarity between them.
In addition to his valuable efforts in showing the numerical miracles in the Book of God, Bassam Jarrar is one of the contemporary interpreters of the Holy Quran. His interpretations are characterized by a linguistic depth and by using evidence from social life and facts of science, which gave his videos much following on the internet. 
‘Adnan Al-Rifa-‘i (2009) was also interested in number 19. He reorganized the Arabic alphabet in a certain way, giving each letter a different numerical value. Then, he applied his gematrical system to the first verse of the Holy Quran, Al-Basmala, which he described as the key to understand the numerical miracle of the Book of God, as it is composed of 19 letters.
He also mentioned verse 30 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74), “عَلَيْهَا تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ”, as the only verse in the Holy Quran, which mentions number 19. It states that “over (the hellfire), there are 19” (angels in charge). He found that the total gematrical value of its letters is 114, which is the total number of the Holy Quran chapters, and it is a multiple of number 19.
He added that if we exclude the repeated separate letters (muqatta’at), the total gematrical value of the remaining letters will be 361, which is a multiple of number 19. Further, he pointed that the total gematrical value of verses 30-37 of Surat Al-Muddathir (Chapter 74) is 2,185, which is a multiple of number 19. In addition, he provided many examples of verses and verse parts, the gematrical values of which are multiples of number 19.
All in all, ‘Adnan Al-Rifa-‘I’s contributions and hard work deserve to be recognized, despite his selectivity in only giving examples of the cases which apply to his arguments, while not mentioning others which do not apply. Thus doing, his research method has the basic selectivity problem, which is facing the numerical miracle research in general. 
Abdul Da-im Al-Ka’heel (2006) has become one of the famous researchers in the topic of the numerical miracle of the Holy Quran, particularly because of the spread of his videos about that in the internet. He criticized the selectivity of other researchers, particularly Rashad Khalifah, who gave himself the liberty to delete the letters and words which did not fit his argument about number 19.
He pointed that there are other miraculous numbers in the Holy Quran, in addition to number 19, such as number 7, which he considered as the base for the numerical system of all words, verses, and chapters of the Holy Quran.
He found that number 11 is present in the letters of verses, which mention the Oneness of God. He also found number 13 as representing the number of years of the Prophet’s mission in Makkah, number 23 as representing the number of years in which the Prophet, pbbuh, received revelation, and number 29 as representing the number of chapters which start with separate letters (muqatta’at). He also provided many numerical facts in the Holy Quran, including its first verse and first chapter, showing the numerical harmony (consistency) of number 7 in Surat Al-Ikhlas (Chapter 112) of the holy Quran.
Al-Ka’heel criticized other researchers who used gematrical systems, such as ‘Hisab Al-Jummal, to give numerical values for the letters, words, and chapter numbers of the Holy Quran. He mentioned that such a method is scientifically baseless and whatever findings researchers found were the result of using selected examples. Further, he warned researchers to stay away from predicting dates of future events, because these are part of the unknown, which is the sphere of Allah alone.
He also observed that the current numerical miracle research is limited to the use of Al-Mus’haf Al-Imam text of the Holy Quran, which is based on the reading of ‘Hafs from ‘Asim. Moreover, he called on researchers to come to an agreement on consistent research methods and on the used data, which should be from the Holy Quran text. He argued that if the methods and the data are correct, then the findings will be correct, which should represent a true miracle, not just a coincidence.
Actually, he took the initiative (2012) to address the problem of inaccuracy among some researchers, in counting the letters and words of the Holy Quran. He formed and chaired a Committee of experts from various Arab countries, which worked for about seven years, for that purpose. The main established standard the Committee came up with was counting a letter if it is physically written, not how it is pronounced. The Committee also developed a digitized copy of the Holy Quran, with search functions, and launched it to be used by researchers and the general public (2018). 
Khalid Al-Faqih (2017) wanted to avoid the selectivity problem, which was experienced by other researchers. Therefore, he embarked on a research endeavor, which applies to the whole text of the Holy Quran, using the gematrical system of ‘Hisab Al-Jummal. He observed the rules and guidelines established by Abdul Da-im Al-Ka’heel (2012) and his Committee, in order to be as accurate as possible in counting the letters and words of the Holy Quran. In particular, a letter is counted if it is physically written, not how it is pronounced. This means that the stressed letters are counted once, not twice as some researchers did.
He started with the calculation the Holy Quran Constant (HQC), by dividing its gematrical value (23,506,544) by the cumulative sum of verse numbers (333,667). The result was that the HQC is: 70.44911244, which resembles the way the Quran was mathematically designed, structured and configured. He argued that it must have the keys to unlock the secrets of the Quran, such as unleashing the Quran statistics (words, verses and chapters) and revealing its numerical connection with the golden ratio of living and non-things (Ф).
He calculated the Holy Quran Golden Ratio (HQGR), to compare it with the golden ratio, by dividing the number of the Holy Quran chapters (114) by the HQC (70.44911244). Thus, he found that the HQGR is: 1.618189304, which resembles the golden ratio of things (1.6180339887), with 99.99% accuracy. He considered that finding a clear piece of evidence that the Holy Quran is the Book of Allah, who designed His Book to match His other designs, in His dominium. 
Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran
الخَلْقُ وَالتَّطَوُّرُ فِي القُرْآنِ الكَرِيمِ
أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Through the meanings of the first ten Quran verses addressed in Chapter 3 of this book, we saw how Allah (God) started the creation of the universe, including the seven heavens and the seven earth-like planets, as well as the intelligent beings living in them. This Chapter focuses on the themes of creation and evolution, by addressing how Allah started the creation of life on Earth and how He left it to evolve as a result of learning from adaptation to the various environments, with His intervention to improve His creation.
In particular, the creation and evolution of human beings will be addressed through the discussion of the following 43 verses, which the author identified in the Holy Quran and presented in a suggested order of creation and evolution.
Meanings of these verses are explained by consulting with the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran (Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer). Then, the meanings are compared with the scientific evidence, particularly from anthropology, biology, and cosmology. The objective is to tell the story of God's creation of life and how it evolved on Planet Earth, not only by using the linguistic meanings of the verses but also by using the relevant scientific facts.
From the meanings of these verses, researchers can find support for the evolutionary theory, which dominates all natural sciences. Moreover, the scientific facts included in these verses represent further pieces of evidence that the author of the Holy Quran is Allah, the All Knowledgeable, as humans did not know these facts until the establishment of modern sciences, during the second half of the 19th Century.
The 43 Verses, Which Tell the Story of Creation and Evolution in the Holy Quran
1-2. Verses 29: 19-20 include God's command to us to travel through the Earth, to study how He began His creation, in order to explain to us how He repeated it before (after the extinction of the human species), and how He can repeat it again in the Hereafter.
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَيْفَ يُبْدِئُ اللَّـهُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّـهِ يَسِيرٌ ﴿العنكبوت ، 29: 19﴾.
قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ اللَّـهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿العنكبوت ، 29: 20﴾.
Do they not see how Allah begins the Creation, then repeats it? That is easy for Allah (to do) (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 19).
Say: "Travel through the Earth and see how He began the Creation. Then, Allah makes the latter Creation. Allah is capable of (doing) everything" (Al-'Ankaboot, 29: 20).
Thus, the emergence of modern sciences, which investigate how the Universe, including our solar system, started, as well as how life began and how it has continued on our planet, represents an implementation of this divine command. This included the establishment of anthropology with its four sub-disciplines (archaeological, biological, linguistic, and cultural), biology, physics, chemistry, astrophysics, and geography, to name some of them.
3. Verse 50: 15 confirms what was mentioned in Verse 29: 19 above, that there was a first creation of life on Earth.
أفَعَيِينَا بِٱلۡخَلۡقِ ٱلۡأَوَّلِۚ بَلۡ هُمۡ فِى لَبۡسٍ۬ مِّنۡ خَلۡقٍ۬ جَدِيد (قاف ، 50: 15).
Were We then tired with the first creation? (No), they (nonbelievers) are in confusion about a new creation (Qaf, 50: 15).
4. Verse 21: 30 tells us that the heavens and the Earth were joined together as one entity before they were splintered, and that every living thing was made out of water.
أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقاً فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلا يُؤْمِنُونَ (الأنبياء ، 21: 30).
Have not those who disbelieve seen (known) that the heavens and the Earth were of one connected entity, then We splintered (separated) them, and We made every living thing out of water? Will they not then believe? (Al-Anbiya', 21: 30).
This verse is a source of support for scientists who have reached the established biological fact that water is necessary for any life form. For decades, space programs have had a major goal of investigating whether there is water on other planets or not, in order to begin the exploration of whether there is life on those planets or not. This Verse and several other verses in the Holy Quran have stated clearly that every living being has been created from water.
Water covers about seventy percent of the surface of the Earth, which has provided it with the essential requirement of life. We know now the components of cells in primitive unicellular organisms. However, scientists do not know how life started in the first cell, and they have never been able to create life in a cell.
This Verse tells us that it is God, Who created living beings out of water. As we learn from the verses addressed below, He did that by blowing of His Spirit into the first cell, creating life in it, which became the primary software or DNA of living things.
5. Verse 20: 30 tells us that the first creation of life on Earth was out of earth matter (dirt or soil), in addition to water, as mentioned in Verse 21: 30 above.
And of His signs is that He created you from the earth matter (dirt or soil).Then, you became humans spreading (throughout the Earth) (Al-Room, 30: 20).
Water is the first condition for life to exist but this Verse tells us that the earth matter was the other condition for the human life to exist. The most relevant word in this verse is "turab," which is the earth matter that can be translated into dirt or soil. The same word is also mentioned in five other verses in relation to the first creation of life on Earth. 
6. Verse 32: 7 tells us that the first creation of life was in clay, which is a combination of water and earth matter (dust or soil).
الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الإنْسَانِ مِنْ طِينٍ (السَّجْدَةُ ، 32: 7).
(Allah is He) who has made everything He created better, and He began the creation of the human (being) out of clay (Al-Sajda, 32: 7).
In this verse, we are told that the first creation of human beings was out of clay, but that was the beginning. The most relevant word in this verse is "began" (bada-a), which tells us clearly that the creation happened in a process that had a beginning. It did not happen at once.
Water is the basic condition for life to exist, as we know from Verse 21: 30, mentioned above, but in Verse 30: 20, the earth matter (dust or soil) is added as a second condition. In this Verse (32: 7), we learn that the first creation of life was in clay, which is a confirmation for the previously mentioned two verses, as clay is the combination of water and earth matter (dust or soil). This is also what we know from the scientific evidence available to us today, as there is a wide agreement among scientists that the beginning of life was in clay, which is basically composed of water and earth matter (dust or soil). 
7. Verse 37: 11 describes the clay, in which life started, as sticky clay:
فَاسْتَفْتِهِمْ أَهُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَم مَّنْ خَلَقْنَا ۚ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُم مِّن طِينٍ لَّازِبٍ (الصافات ، 37: 11).
Then, (O Muhammad) inquire of them (the Makkan nonbelievers), "Are they a stronger creation (than others) We have created?" Indeed, We created them from sticky clay (Al-Saffat, 3711).
The three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran agreed on the meaning of the word "lazib," in the verse, as sticky. Thus, the first creation of life began in sticky clay. Its molecules were sticky to each-other and it would stick to anything that touched it.
8. Verse 15: 26 provides another description of the clay used in the first creation of life, mentioning that it was dry clay with a stinking smell.
وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ (الحجر ، 15: 26).
We created the human being from dry clay, molded of blackened (and) stinking mud (Al-'Hijr, 15: 26).
This verse gives a very specific description of the environment where life started. It refers to places where water was combined with the earth matter (dust or soil), creating stinking clay. This description is the same as the one used by biologists, who mention that life on Earth started in clay, where water is mixed with the earth matter (dust or soil). This includes various primary elements, some of which have stinking smell, such as hydrogen sulfides, thus making the clay stinking, precisely as mentioned in this Verse. 
9. Verse 55: 14 confirms that the clay of the first creation was dry, like pottery.
خَلَقَ الإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ كَالْفَخَّارِ (ألرحمن ، 55: 14).
He created the human (being) of a hard clay, like pottery (Al-Ra'hman, 55: 14).
This Verse (55: 14) tells us that the clay, which was used for the first creation of life, was dry, like pottery, confirming what was mentioned in Verse 15: 26 above. However, when such dry clay was moistened with water, it became suitable for the start of life in it, as water is the first condition for life to exist (21: 30).
10. Verse 71: 14 tells us that the creation of humans happened in stages, not at once, as was also mentioned in Verse 32: 7, by the use of the verb "began" (bada-a).Thus, the creation of humans from clay was the first stage of the first creation, which was followed by other stages, as we learn from other verses below.
وَقَدۡ خَلَقَكُمۡ أَطۡوَارًا (نوح ، 71: 14).
He has created you in diverse (and successive) stages (Noo'h, 71: 14).
From the following verses, we learn that there are two creations. The first one was in nature, which included five stages. These are starting life in the cell, fashioning humans in the right proportions, walking on two legs, imaging, and blowing of God's Spirit. The second creation is in the womb, which also includes five stages. These are the fertilized egg (zygote), leech, lump (like a chewed substance), bones, and muscles, as will be discussed later in Verse 23: 14 below.
11. Verse 6: 2 tells us that after Allah had created life in clay, He willed to leave His creation on its own, for a certain time He determined.
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَى أَجَلاً وَأَجَلٌ مُّسمًّى عِندَهُ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ (الأنعام ، 6: 2).
He is Who created you from clay, then He spent a term of time (away from you), and (it is) a specific term He determined. Yet, you doubt (His ability)! (Al-An'am, 6: 2).
Scientists generally, and biologists and anthropologists in particular, can have support from this Verse, as well as from the following verses, for their evolutionary explanation of how different species evolved on Earth, on their own, in specific periods of time, when Allah, praise to Him, determined to spend some time away from His creation.
Thus, this Verse summarizes the two concepts of creation and evolution. While creation refers to God's intervention, making changes and improvements on His creation, evolution refers to the changes which happen to organisms as a result of their interaction and adaptation to their physical and social environment. This is also the essence of the evolutionary theory, which dominates the natural sciences.
12. Verse 4: 1 tells us that at the start of the first creation, there was only one living self (unicellular organism). Then, another self (cell) came out of it, to become its mate. The Verse also tells us that these two primary cells were the origins of the second creation of men and women (in the womb).
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيراً وَنِسَاء (النساء ، 4: 1).
O Humans! Be pious (careful of your duty) to your Lord, Who created you from a single self (living cell), and from it He created its mate, and from them He has spread a multitude of men and women (Al-Nissa, 4: 1).
Biological science tells us that the earliest form of life was represented by single cell organisms found in water, then these multiplied by splitting themselves. With the course of time, reproduction evolved to become as a result of pair-mating, instead of the archaic forms of splitting or dividing. (See Appendix 1 about the "Origins of Life on Earth," as agreed upon by natural scientists).
13. Verse 82: 7 mentions the first three stages of the first creation. These are starting life in the first cell, fashioning with the right proportions, and walking upright on two legs.
الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ (الإنفطار ، 82: 7).
It is He Who created you, fashioned you with the right proportions, and straightened you up (Al-Infitar, 82: 7).
The first stage was the creation of life in the first cell (unicellular prokaryote), as expressed in the Arabic verb khalaqa (created). The second stage was fashioning with the right proportions, as expressed in the Arabic verb sawwa, in which the unicellular prokaryote organisms evolved to the multicellular eukaryote organisms, including animals. While humans share the first two stages with other organism, the third stage represented the human departure from the animal kingdom. This is expressed by the Arabic verb 'adala, which means that God straightened up humans, enabling them to walk in an upright way, on two legs. These three stages are recognized now as scientific facts, taught in biology textbooks. 
In their interpretation of the verb 'adalak in Verse 82: 7, the three interpreters explained it as "straightened you up," but Ibn Katheer elaborated more about the meaning. He mentioned a 'Hadith from the Prophet, pbbuh, that Allah, praise to Him, created humans in the best image and the right proportions and made them walk in a balanced way, in an upright position, which allowed them to walk between the two cold times of the day (before the sunrise and before the sunset).
This could be a reference to the homo erectus, which marked a major departure of humans from their closest kin in the primate family. The Prophet's mention of walking between the two cold times maybe a reference to the fact that walking on two legs, instead of all four as animals do, has allowed humans to earn their living, explore, migrate, and ultimately live in all regions of the earth. We learn this from the word "bardayn" in the ‘Hadith, which may refer to the two coolest times of the day, from dawn until before the sunset. 
14. Verse 64: 3 refers to a fourth main stage of the first creation of life on Earth, which is the stage of making humans in the best of images.
خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ (التغابن ، 64: 3).
He created the heavens and the Earth in truth and imaged you in the best of images, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).
In this fourth stage, the Creator made humans in the best of images, that is in beauty, grace, and the right proportions of features, as expressed in the Arabic verb a'hsana sowarakum (made you in the best of images). It's amazing that many people do not appreciate this divine honor for them, as they inject harmful substances to their bodies, or eat too much without hard work or exercise, which may result in diseases and pain, as well as in tarnishing the divine beauty God bestowed on them!
15. Verse 82: 8 tells us that the genetic structure of the human child represents that which is shared with humanity and before.
فِي أَيِّ صُورَةٍ مَّا شَاء رَكَّبَكَ (الانفطار ، 82: 8).
In whatever image (form) He willed, He assembled you (Al-Infitar, 82: 8).
In explaining this verse, Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer mentioned the Prophet's 'Hadith, in which he said, "When the fertilized egg settles in the womb, Allah connects it genetically to Adam." Al-Qurtubi agreed with them, in that the human fetus may reflect characteristics and features of relatives and non-relatives, and even features of animals.
So, despite the fact that people may differ in their external features, such as their height, weight, skin color, and facial feature, yet they carry the same genetic heritage they share with other humans, since the first creation, all the way to Adam, and their parents. Most likely, people may look like their parents and close relativesو but it is possible that they may differ from them. Some people may even have some features of animals, such as in the shape of their ears, noses, mouths, chins, necks, and eyes.
16. Verse 15: 29 refers to a fifth main stage in the first creation of life on Earth, which was blowing part of God's Spirit in humans.
فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ (الحجر ، 15: 29).
And when I have proportioned him and blown into him of My Spirit, then fall down to him in prostration (Al-'Hijr, 15: 29 ; Sad, 38: 72).
This Verse, which was also repeated in 38: 72, shows that blowing God's Spirit was the fifth stage of the first creation, which preceded God's command for angels to prostate to Adam. The evidence for this conclusion is the use of the conjunctive letter f (fa), which refers to direct temporal sequence of events, without delay. In comparison with Verse 7: 11, the command of prostration came with the use of the conjunctive word "thumma," which means then and refers to a delayed temporal sequence of events.
Concerning God's Spirit, which was blown into humans, we know little about that, as Verse 17: 85 tells us. However, there is a slight discussion about God's Spirit in Chapter 9 of this book, "Mind, Self, Spirit, Soul, and Happiness."
Blowing God's Spirit in humans, in the fifth stage of the first creation, distinguished them from animals and honored them, by giving them the noble human characteristics, such as choice, acquisition of knowledge, and construction, which are discussed in Chapter 5, "Humans, as God's Caliphs on Earth."
But it can be said that the blowing of God's Spirit in humans was a way to honor them and to elevate their status among other creatures. It added to the human DNA a number of noble characteristics, such as the ability to distinguish choose between right and wrong, logic, the ability to abstain from doing harm to the self and others, planning, expression, acquisition of knowledge, and construction, as will be discussion in Chapter 5, "Humans, as God's Caliphs on Earth."
17-20. Verse 7: 11 refers to God's command to angels, to prostrate to Adam, as a sign to honor humans and in recognition to their intellectual capabilities.
وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلآئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ (الأعراف ، 7: 11).
And We created you (humans, in plural form), then imaged you (also addressing humans in plural form), then said to the angels: Prostrate to Adam! And they prostrated, all except Iblis (Satan), who was not of those who made prostration (Al-A'raf, 7: 11).
This Verse refers to the greatest event in the history of humanity, which was also mentioned in Verse 15: 29 above. In comparison with other species on Earth, humans reached a high level of intellect and morality, which qualified them for the honor of receiving communication from their Creator, who decided to make them His caliphs (deputies) on Earth.
The high level of intellect was reflected in the human capability to invent various ways of communication, including language, which facilitated the exchange of information and ideas. This, in turn, helped humans to adapt to their various environments, utilizing available resources, and consequently achieving more prosperity.
If we compare the human mental and communication capabilities with those of their closest relatives in the animal kingdom, the chimpanzees, we find that humans have excelled as a result of having numerous physiological advantages. A major difference between humans and other animals is that humans are much more intelligent than any animal species on the planet, as measured by the EQ comparisons. Humans also have very much larger brain processing and memory centers, which contributes to advanced communication capabilities. In addition, the human pharynx is shaped as a right angle, which enables the production of precise sounds, by the tight control of air, passing through the vocal cords. These precise sounds became the basic units of human languages. With these communication and mental capacities, humans became capable of advanced thinking, complex processing of information, communication with others, and receiving communication from their Creator, through inspiration. 
Humans also have achieved the capability to be moral beings, which they gained from their Creator's blowing of His Spirit into their DNA. So, they became inclined to do good, capable of distinguishing between right and wrong, and in possession of the will to choose their decisions and deeds. Therefore, they became accountable to such decisions and deeds. Physiologically speaking, the front lobe of the human brain, which processes intellectual, moral, and ethical issues, is much larger and more developed in the human brain than in brains of any other species on Earth. 
Verses 11: 56 and 96: 15-16 mention the forehead, the front lobe of the brain, as the part in which intellectual, moral, and ethical processes take place. Consequently, front lobe will be held responsible for the committed lies and sins.
إِنِّي تَوَكَّلْتُ عَلَى اللَّـهِ رَبِّي وَرَبِّكُم مَّا مِن دَابَّةٍ إِلَّا هُوَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا إِنَّ رَبِّي عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ (هود ، 11: 56).
Indeed, I have relied upon Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no creature but that He holds its forehead. Indeed, my Lord is on a straight path (Hood, 11: 56).
كَلَّا لَئِن لَّمْ يَنتَهِ لَنَسْفَعًا بِالنَّاصِيَةِ ﴿١٥﴾ نَاصِيَةٍ كَاذِبَةٍ خَاطِئَةٍ ﴿١٦﴾ (العلق ، 96: 15: 16).
In Arabic dictionaries, the word nasiya, mentioned in the Verse, means the forehead. In his interpretation of Verse 11: 56, Al-Qurtubi also mentioned clearly that the Arabic word nasiya, mentioned in the Verse, means the forehead, which may become a lying and sinning forehead. 
In recognition of these human advanced intellectual and moral capabilities and achievements, Allah decided to make humans His caliphs (deputies) on Earth. The angels were surprised because they saw some humans shedding blood and committing acts of corruption. So, Allah chose Adam to represent humanity (3: 33), in a contest between him and the angels, to show them that he is worthy of God's trust and honor, as He created him with His own hands (38: 75). When Adam won the contest, Allah commanded the angels to prostrate to him, in recognition of his winning. All angels obeyed and prostrated, except Iblis (Satan), who refused, arguing that he was better than humans, and saying that he was created of fire while Adam was created originally of clay. Further, he asked Allah to delay his punishment, to prove his point that humans are not worthy of God's trust in them. Allah accepted the challenge because of His knowledge that many humans are going to be good and thankful to Him. He warned Satan, his offspring, and their followers among the Jinn and humans that all will be punished in the hellfire (7: 12-18, 11: 119), as will be discussed in Chapter 6, "Adam's Contest with the Angels and Getting Out of Paradise."
Humans have demonstrated that they are worthy of God's trust in them, as they have continued to worship Him by choice (90: 10), while angels worship Him as a result of their obedient nature (66: 6). Moreover, humans are capable of the acquisition of knowledge (2: 31), and they like to make things and construct (11: 61), as will be discussed in Chapter 5 of this book. This God's trust in at least some humans to be wise, as rulers of His Earth, was also recognized by anthropologists, who have called the current human species as homo sapien sapiens (the wise human). 
21. In Verse 14: 19, we read a threat that Allah, Who created heavens and Earth with the right proportions, may cause humans to disappear if He wills:
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللّهَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِالْحقِّ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَأْتِ بِخَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ (إبراهيم ، 14: 19).
Have you not seen that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with the right proportions? If He wills, He can remove you and bring ( in your place ) a new creation (Ibrahim, 14: 19).
There are two meanings relevant to the subject of this Chapter in the above verse. First, Allah, praise to Him, has created heavens and Earth with the right proportions, which is a reference to the perfect system of interrelationships between components of the universe.
The Earth is placed in a perfect position and distance from the sun in order for life to flourish and continue on it. Proximity and distance from the closest point to the sun on Earth (the equatorial region) has led to the variation of environments and climates, leading to the wonderful variation in the fauna and flora in the biosphere. The proportion of water in the planet (70%) is equal to the proportion of water in the human body. The balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide and the formation of the ozone, which protects Earth from the harmful ultraviolet cosmic radiation, all are examples of the right proportions of creation mentioned in the above verse.
The second meaning is related to God's threat that He can cause humans to disappear if they disobey Him and bring a new creation, which is better. Natural scientists may find support from the meaning of this verse to their theories about the many now-extinct species, which once dominated Earth, like dinosaurs.
22. Verse 76: 11 tells us that there was a time in which humans went extinct, without a trace on Earth.
هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا (الإنسان ، 76: 1).
Has there (not) come upon the human (being) a period of time when he was not a mentioned thing? (Al-Insan, 76: 1).
Biologists and anthropologists, in particular, may find support in Verse 76: 1 for their hypotheses about disappearances of some early human species, such as Homo Erectus and Neanderthals (Appendix 2), as the Verse states that there was a time in which humans disappeared (were not a mentioned thing). This Verse also refers to God's ability to bring the extinct species back to life, and consequently to His ability to resurrect humans for reckoning and judgment, as mentioned in Verses 29: 19-20 above.
23. Verse 32: 8 tells us about the second creation of life, in the womb. As males and females, later, paired to reproduce, taking other life forms in the sea and on land. Reproduction has become in the form of uniting the watery genetic materials of males and females.
ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ مَهِينٍ (السجدة ، 32: 8).
Then He made his offspring from a quintessence of (parents') despised water (Al-Sajda, 32: 8).
24. Verse 32: 9 mentions two stages of the first creation, which are shaping in due proportions and blowing God's Spirit in humans. It also mentions the development of the fetus in the second creation, in the womb.
ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِهِ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالأبْصَارَ وَالأفْئِدَةَ قَلِيلاً مَا تَشْكُرُونَ (السجدة ، 32: 9).
Then He shaped him (in due proportions), and blew in him of His Spirit, and made for you hearing, sight, and hearts; (however) little thanks you give (Al-Sajda, 32: 9).
Thus, Allah, praise to Him, has bestowed life on His creation, including humans, by providing them with a software that enables them to be living, through the automatic functioning of their organs. However, He honored humans by blowing part of His Spirit in them, as another software which allows them to distinguish good from evil and consequently enables them to choose their actions (For more about blowing some of God’s spirit in humans, see Chapter 9, “Mind, Self, Soul, Spirit, and Happiness from an Islamic Perspective.”
25. In Verse 71: 17, Allah, praise to Him, teaches us about the story of the human life by giving an analogy between humans and plants, as both came out of the earth.
وَٱللَّهُ أَنۢبَتَكُم مِّنَ ٱلأرۡضِ نَبَاتً۬ا (نوح ، 71: 17).
And Allah has caused you to grow out of the earth like plants (Noo'h, 71: 17).
This means that, originally, organisms started in the earth, inside the stinking clay. Then, they left to the sea and to the surface of the earth, like plants which grow out of the earth to appear on its surface.
A related meaning is that Allah has (originally) planted humans and other organisms in earth and caused them to grow out of it like plants, which pass through different and successive metamorphosing stages, from seeds to growing plants, then to the flowering stage, and ultimately to the death of the grown plants. However, life restarts, as the dying plants produce seeds, which repeat the cycle of life again. The analogy also indicates that humans will be resurrected for reckoning in the Last Day, just like plants are resurrected after their death, through the seeds, as discussed in Chapter 24.
26. Verse 18: 37 details the meaning mentioned in Verse 71: 14 above (He has created you in diverse (and successive) stages), by mentioning the first creation and some stages of the second creation (in the womb), as follows:
قَالَ لَهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَكَفَرْتَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلاً (الكهف ، 18: 37).
His companion said to him, while arguing with him: Have you disbelieved in Him Who created you of the earth matter (dirt or soil), then of a nutfah (union of a father’s sperm and a mother’s egg), then fashioned you into a man? (Al-Kahf, 18: 37).
While mentioning earth matter (dust or soil), in this Verse, is a reference to the first creation, mentioning nutfah (union of a father’s sperm and a mother’s egg) is a reference to the first stage of the second creation, in the womb, which is followed by four other stages, as explained in Verse 23: 14, later.
Mentioning the sex of the fetus (then fashioned you into a man) is a reference to the scientific fact that the external sexual organs start to appear about six weeks after the egg fertilization. However, distinguishing males from females is possible starting from the ninth week after fertilization. 
27. Verse 35: 11 confirms the meanings mentioned in Verse 18: 37 and adds another meaning related to reproduction by pairing:
وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا (فاطر ، 35: 11).
Allah created you from the earth soil, then from a nutfah (union of a father’s sperm and a mother’s egg), then He made you pairs (or mates: males and females) (Fatir, 35: 11).
28. Verse 40: 67 adds the second stage of the second creation, in the womb, (the 'alaqa: leech):
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلاً (غافر ، 40: 67).
He is Who created you from the earth soil, then from a nutfah (union of a father’s sperm and a mother’s egg), then from a leech (a fertilized egg sticking to the womb sucking nutrients from it like a leach), then He brings you out (of the womb) as a child (Ghafir, 40: 67).
Thus, the first stage of the second creation is the nutfah, which is the Arabic word for a fertilized egg, a zygote, or the union of a father’s sperm and a mother’s egg. The second stage is described in this Verse as an 'alaqa, which is the Arabic word for a leech. In this case, it refers to a fertilized egg sticking to the womb, sucking nutrients from it, like a leech which sticks to the animal or human body, sucking blood from it.
29-31. Verses 23: 12-14 mention the first creation from clay, then list the five successive stages of the second creation in the womb:
وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن سُلَـٰلَةٍ۬ مِّن طِينٍ۬ (١٢)
ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ نُطۡفَةً۬ فِى قَرَارٍ۬ مَّكِينٍ۬ (١٣)
ثُمَّ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلنُّطۡفَةَ عَلَقَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡعَلَقَةَ مُضۡغَةً۬ فَخَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡمُضۡغَةَ عِظَـٰمً۬ا فَكَسَوۡنَا ٱلۡعِظَـٰمَ لَحۡمً۬ا ثُمَّ أَنشَأۡنَـٰهُ خَلۡقًا ءَاخَرَۚ فَتَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ أَحۡسَنُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقِينَ (١٤) (ألمؤمنون ، 23: 12-14).
We created the human being from a product of wet earth; (12)
Then, We placed it as a nutfah (fertilized egg) in a safe (deep) lodging; (13)
Then, We created the nutfah into an alaqa (leech).
Then, We created the alaqa into mudh-ghah (a little lump, like a chewed substance).
Then, We created the mudh-ghah into bones.
Then, We clothed the bones with muscle.
Then, We produced it (the human being) as another creation.
So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators! (14). (Al-Mu'-minoon, 23: 12-14).
Only recently in human history, biological and medical researchers could reach such accurate knowledge about the five major stages of the fetus development, as described in the verses above.
The first stage is the nutfah (the fertilized egg), which lasts about a week after fertilization, during which its cells multiply by division. Then, it develops into 'alaqa (leech) during the second and third weeks, which is the second stage of the fetus development. It looks like a leech in its appearance and in its characteristics, as it sticks to the womb wall, from which it sucks blood, exactly like a leech which sticks to the body of an animal or a human to suck blood from it.
During the fourth week, and more specifically on the twenty-second day, the heart starts beating, and the fetus develops to the third stage of the second creation in the womb, which is the mudh-ghah (a chewed piece of food), as it accurately looks like, without any observed organs first. Then, organs start to appear, during the fourth and fifth weeks.
A little before the end of the sixth week, specifically during days 38-40 after fertilization, the fourth stage stage of the second creation in the womb starts. The cartridge skeleton starts to form at the beginning of the seventh week, leading to the bone formation, and the appearance of the head and limbs.
Finally, the fifth stage starts at the end of the seventh week and continues during the eighth week, bones are coated with flesh (muscle), and the formation of the internal and internal organs is completed, but these continue to grow in size after that. 
32. While the above-mentioned verses told us about the various stages of the first and second creations of life on this planet, the following verses attract our attention to some natural and cosmic phenomena around us, to encourage us to think about them. Some of these verses are about how the resurrection will happen in the Last Day. Other verses invite us to search for the reasons behind the differences in people's skin colors and languages, in the nature of Earth, and in the relationship between the Earth and each of the Moon and the Sun, in order to increase our faith in the Creator and to benefit from this information.
In Verse 10: 92, we read about an archaeological event, in which the mummy of the Egyptian Pharaoh is promised to be found, to be a sign for people to believe and a piece of evidence about the authenticity of the Exodus story, including the split of the sea and the drowning of the Pharaoh.
فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ آيَةً وَإِنَّ كَثِيراً مِّنَ النَّاسِ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا لَغَافِلُونَ (يونس ، 10: 92).
Today, We save you (Pharaoh of Egypt) through saving your body so that you may be a sign for those after you. Lo! Most people are heedless of Our signs (Younus, 10: 92).
The Verse is related to the divine command for humans to travel on Earth to know how God started creation of life on the planet. This command has been fulfilled by the establishment of the modern sciences, including archaeology, which led to the discovery of the mummies of kings of ancient Egypt (the pharaohs).
Bin Katheer (Volume 2: 203-205) mentioned that when Moussa (Moses, pbuh) hit the sea with his stick, it split like a huge cliff on each side, creating twelve paths for the twelve Israelite tribes, each one separated from the other by a glass window. When the Pharaoh and his army arrived and saw the awesome view, they were afraid to proceed but the senior angel, Jibril (Gabriel), encouraged them to continue by marching in front of them. When all of them were in the middle of the path, God ordered the sea waters to merge again, drowning them all.
Bin Katheer added that despite what they saw by their eyes, the Israelites asked Moussa to show them the body of the Pharaoh to make sure that he died. God gave them what they wanted by throwing the body of the Pharaoh to the shore, so they can see it, as a sign of God's punishment for those who oppress believers.
This author sees a different interpretation for the Arabic words liman khalfaka (to those after you). The Israelites of Moussa (pbuh) lived at the time of the Pharaoh, not after his time. Therefore, the sign was intended to be to those who would come after that time, simply because the Israelites saw the miracle and lived it, themselves.
A closer interpretation to the meanings of the verse is that the Children of Israel crossed the Gulf of Suez, at a narrow area, about 12 miles wide, close to its northern tip. After the Pharaoh and his soldiers drowned, the sea waves threw his body on the western coast of the Gulf, not the eastern coast, where the Israelites were. Then, the Egyptians took the body back to their capital, where it was mummified, following their custom of mummifying their kings and notables. Consequently, his body was hidden until the discovery of the Egyptian mummies, in 1898, which are now displayed in the Royal Mummies Room of the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo.
There is no agreement among historians and biblical scholars about the Pharaohs involved in the story or the time frame they lived in. Ancient Egyptian records, the Bible, and the Holy Quran did neither mention the name of the Pharaoh, nor his time. However, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, the oppressive Pharaoh was Ramses II (1279-1212 BC) and the Exodus pharaoh was his son, Mernepta’h (1212-1202 BC). This opinion is supported by the biblical scholar by Joshua Mark, who denies that Ramses II was the drowned Pharaoh.
This opinion was also supported by Maurice Bucaille, who argued that Ramses II oppressed the Israelites, but he died while Moussa (Moses) was in Mayan. This means that his son, Mernepta’h (1212-1202 BC) was the one who drowned while chasing the Israelites. His mummy was discovered in the Valley of Kings, in Thabes, in 1898, together with other mummies of the Egyptian pharaohs. In 1975, Bucaille participated with a group of medical doctors in examining Mernepta’h’s mummified body and they found that he died of drowning. This specific discovery, and other scientific facts in the Holy Quran, influenced him to accept Islam, as he mentioned in his books, articles, and interviews. 
33-35. Verses 17: 49-51 tell us about some archaeological prophecies, which happened, and other prophecies, which have not happened yet, mentioning God's response to human doubts about Resurrection, in the hereafter:
وَقَالُوا أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَإِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا ﴿٤٩﴾
قُلْ كُونُوا حِجَارَةً أَوْ حَدِيدًا ﴿٥٠﴾
أَوْ خَلْقًا مِّمَّا يَكْبُرُ فِي صُدُورِكُمْ ... ﴿٥١﴾ (الإسراء ، 17: 51).
And they say: When we are bones and dust, are we going to be resurrected as a new creation? (Al-Issra, 17: 49).
Say: (Yes, you will be resurrected even if) you are stones or iron (Al-Issra, 17: 50).
Or a created matter, which is greater (or stronger than iron) in your minds (Al-Issra, 17: 51)
In their interpretations of these three verses, the three renowned interpreters of the Holy Quran, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, mentioned that the Quraysh pagans asked the Messenger of God, Muhammed (pbuh), a rhetorical question, casting doubt about God's ability to resurrect people for reckoning, in the Last Day. They asked him about how Allah is going to be able to resurrect people after their death, which turns them into bones and dust.
In response, Allah inspired His Messenger to answer them, saying that He is not only capable to resurrect them after becoming bones and dust but also if they become rocks, or iron, or stronger than iron. The three interpreters did not explain how human beings may become rocks, iron, or stronger than iron because the knowledge of their time did not allow them to know these possible changes, which may happen to humans. However, for us, these verses refer to some scientific facts and prophecies, which have already happened, and others which are continuously happening.
Verse 17: 49 mentions a fact known for a long time, which is the change of the dead body into bones and dust. However, Verse 17: 50 represents a prophecy wh