Allah,

His Good Names,

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

By Hassan Ali El-Najjar

1445 / 2023

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With the Arabic texts of the Quran verses and ‘Hadeeths


 

Copyright Information

Allah and His Good Names, Who Is He? What Does He Want for Humanity? (in English with Arabic Texts)

Copyright © 2023 by Hassan Ali El-Najjar. All rights reserved.

Published in the United States of America by the author.

In addition to this English version of the book, which includes the Arabic texts of verses and ‘Hadiths, there’s another English-only version. A third version of the book is in Arabic, which is titled as:

اللهُ ، سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى ، وَأسْمَاؤهُ الْحُسْنَى: مَنْ هُوَ؟ وَمَاذَا يُرِيدُ لِلْبَشَرِيَّةِ؟ كَمَا وَصَفَ نَفْسَهُ فِي الْقُرْآنِ الْكَرِيمِ

In addition to amazon.com, this book can be ordered by email at: sales@ccun.org

Or by mail at:

P.O. Box 2401, Alpharetta, GA 30023, USA

Amazon-assigned ISBN for this Hardcover, black & while version: 9798398515206

ISBN for other publishers: 978-1-7923-4540-1  

Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN): 2023911129

Cataloging-in-Publication Data (Keywords):

Allah, traits of God, Good Names of Allah, purpose of creation, Godhood, angels, jinn, humans, the hereafter.


 

Allah

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

هُوَ الْحَيُّ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۗ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (غَافِرُ ، 40: 65)

 

He is the Eternally Living; there is no deity except Him. So, call upon Him, (being) sincere to Him in religion. (All) praise is (due) to Allah, Lord of the Worlds (Ghafir, 40: 65).

 

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Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, the King, the Holy, the Peace, the Believer, the Predominant, the Exalted in Might, the Compeller, the Superior, the Creator, the Maker, the Originator of the Heavens and the Earth, the First Creator of the Heavens and the Earth, the Forgiver of Sin, the Subduer, the Bestower, the Provider, the Opener, the Knowing, the Surrounding, the Hearer, the Seer, the Wise Judge, the Subtle, the Acquainted, the Forbearer, the Thankful, the High, the Grand, the Great, the Preserver, the Sustainer, the Reckoner, the Generous, the Watchful, the Nearby, the Responder, the Loving, the Praised, the Glorious, the Witness, the Truth, the Manifester, the Clear, the Disposer of Affairs, the Sufficient, the Powerful, the Strong, the Sought for Help, the Caretaker, the Supporter, the Best of Planners, the Best of Deciders, the Guide to the Truth, the Eternally Living, the Reviver of the Dead, the Bringer of the Dead from the Living, the Sustainer of the Universe,  the One God, the Eternal, the Predominant over His Affairs, the Doer of What He Wants, the Able, the Best of  the Capable, the Best of Preparers, the First, the Last, the Manifest, the Latent, the Good, the Kind, the Acceptant of Repentance, the Pardoner, the Kind, the Rich Who is Free of Need, the Light of the Heavens and the Earth, the Inheritor, the Best of the Accommodators, the Cleaver of the Daybreak, the Cleaver of the Grains and Seeds, the Utmost in Powers, the Severe in Punishment, the Severe in Torment, the One with Revenge, the Source of Righteousness, the One with Favors, the One with Abundance, the One with Ascents, the One with Majesty and Honor, the Highest in Ranks, the Lord of the Throne, the Lord  of the Might, the Lord of Sirius, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earth, the Lord of the Sunrises and the Sunsets, the Lord of the Daybreak, the Lord of Everything, the Lord of the People, and the Lord of the Worlds.  


 

اللهُ

أعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

"هُوَ الْحَيُّ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ ۗ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ"

(غَافِرُ ، 40: 36)

 

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اللهُ ، الرَّحْمَـٰنُ ، الرَّحِيمُ ، الْمَلِكُ ، الْقُدُّسُ ، السَّلامُ ، الْمُؤمِنُ ، الْمُهَيْمِنُ ، الْعَزِيزُ ، الْجَبَّارُ ، الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ، الْخَالِقُ ، الْبَارِئُ ، الْمُصَوِّرُ ، بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ والأرْضِ ، فَاطِرُ السَّمَاوَاتِ والأرْضِ ، الغَافِرُ ، الْقَاهِرُ ، الْوَهَّابُ ، الرَّزَّاقُ ، الْفَتَّاحُ ، الْعَلِيمُ ، الْمُحِيطُ ، السَّمِيعُ ، الْبَصِيرُ ، الْحَكِيمُ ، اللَّطِيفُ ، الْخَبِيرُ ، الْحَلِيمُ ، الشَّكُورُ ، الْعَلِيُّ ، الْكَبِيرُ ، الْعَظِيمُ ، الْحَفِيظُ ، الْمُقِيتُ ، الْحَسِيبُ ، الْكَرِيمُ ، الرَّقِيبُ ، الْقَرِيبُ ، الْمُجِيبُ ، الْوَدُودُ ، الْحَمِيدُ ، الْمَجِيدُ ، الشَّهِيدُ ، الْحَقُّ ، الْمُبِينُ ، الْوَكِيلُ ، الْكَافِي ، الْقَوِيُّ ، الْمَتِينُ ، الْمُسْتَعَانُ ، الْوَلِيُّ ، النَّصِيرُ ، خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ ، خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ ، الْهَادِيُ ، الْحَيُّ ، مُحْيِيُ الْمَوْتَى ، مُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيْيِّ ، الْقَيُّومُ ، الأحْدُ ، الصَّمَدُ ، غَالِبٌ عَلَى أمْرِهِ ، فَعَّالٌ لِمَا يُرِيدُ ، الْقَدِيرُ ، نِعْمَ الْقَادِرُونَ ، نِعْمَ الْمَاهِدونَ ، الأوَّلُ ، الآخِرُ ، الظَّاهِرُ ، الْبَاطِنُ ، الْبَرُّ ، التَّوَّابُ ، الْعَفُوُّ ، الرَّؤُوفُ ، الْغَنِيُّ ، نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ والأرْضِ ، الْوَارِثُ ، خَيْرُ الْمُنْزِلِينَ ، فَالِقُ الإصْبَاحِ ، فَالِقُ الْحَبَّ وَالنَّوَى ، شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ ، شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ، شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ ، ذُو انْتِقَامٍ ، أهْلُ التَّقْوَى ، ذُو الْفَضْلِ ، ذُو الطَّوْلِ ، ذُو الْمَعَارِجِ ، ذُو الْجَلالِ والإكْرَامِ ، رَفِيعُ الدَّرَجَاتِ ، رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ ، رَبُّ الْعِزَّةِ ، رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى ، رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ والأرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ، رَبُّ الْمَشَارِقِ والْمَغَارِبِ ، رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ، رَبُّ النَّاسِ ، رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ.

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About the author:

The author of this book was born in Ghazza (Gaza), Palestine, in 1369 Hijriya (1950 AD). He received the first eleven years of education in Gaza Strip and his high school diploma from Raghadan School, in Amman, Jordan, in 1968. He had his bachelor’s degree in English Education from Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, in 1972. He worked as a teacher in Libya and the United Arab Emirates before immigrating with his family to the United States, in 1986. He had his master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology, from the University of Georgia, in 1988, and his Ph.D. in Sociology also from the University of Georgia, in 1993. From 1991 until the publication of this book, in 2020, he was a teacher at Dalton State College.

The author’s full name is Hassan Ali Hassan Ahmed Mu’hammed Abdul Hadi (El-Najjar) Mu’hammed Joudah Al-Harooni. His greatest grandfather, Joudah, emigrated from the town of Arab Wadi Fatima, near Makkah (now in Saudi Arabia), in the seventeenth century and settled in Isdood (Ashdod), Palestine. The author’s fourth grandfather (Abdul Hadi) was also known as El-Najjar (The Carpenter), which became his descendants’ last name.

Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 8th day of Rabee’ Al-Thani, 1445, October 23, 2023.


 

The Author’s Related Books

About Islam

 

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أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

 

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (النَّحْلُ ، 26: 125).

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ (فُصِّلَتْ ، 41: 33).

وقالَ رسولُ اللهِ ، صَلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسَلَّمَ : "بَلِّغُوا عَنِّي ولو آيَةً" (التِّرْمِذِيُّ: 2669 ، الْبُخَاَرِيُّ: 3461).

***

 

I seek refuge with God from the Stoned Shaytan (Satan)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is (rightly) guided (Al-Na’hl, 16: 125).

And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah, and does righteousness, and says, "Indeed, I am of the Muslims" (Fussilat, 41: 33).

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: “Teach on my behalf, even one verse (of the Holy Quran) (Al-Tirmidthi: 2669, Al-Bukhari: 3461).

***

This book is a scientific view of Islam, introducing it to average readers, researchers, and policy makers. In addition to providing basic information about this religion, it attempts to answer some of the fundamental questions about the human existence and its purpose. Moreover, it is intended to be a main source of knowledge about this great religion, which is followed by about 1.7 billion people worldwide.

Verses from the Holy Quran are the main source of information for the topics discussed in this book, and other books written by this author about Islam, followed by ‘Hadeeths (sayings) of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh). Then, interpretations of the Quran verses by the most renowned Muslim scholars, , particularly Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, are used as a background for understanding the meanings of verses.. Their interpretations are valued for including ‘Hadeeths of the Prophet, pbbuh, as well as opinions and applications of his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them (mAbpwt).  Finally, verses of the Holy Quran, mentioned in the discussed topics, are explained in relation to our contemporary knowledge from the social and natural sciences, particularly anthropology, sociology, biology, and cosmology. The objective is to show that the Holy Quran is the Word of Allah (the God), praise to Him, as it contains so many scientific facts,  which have been  discovered only in the past few centuries. Consequently, it is an assurance to believers and an invitation to others, to believe in the Lord of the Worlds, and His Message to humanity.

This author has divided his work about Islam into seven related books (parts). The first book (Islam: A Scientific View of God’s Message to Humanity) includes ten chapters. It starts with a brief introduction about the Holy Quran, the Sunna, and Islamic research, as the main sources of knowledge about Islam. Then, there is an introduction to the three levels of faith: Islam (performing the five duties), Ieman (faith), and I’hsan (righteousness). This is followed by a discussion about of the scientific evidence for God’s existence and for the Holy Quran as His message to humanity. An exploration is conducted, after that, about the issue of creation and evolution, from an Islamic perspective, including how life started on Earth, how it evolved, and the divine intervention. God’s decision to honor humans as worthy of ruling over Earth is also addressed, with particular attention to Adam’s winning of the contest with the angels and getting out of Paradise. Then, there is an investigation of the issue of whether humans are free in their choice to believe in God or not. This is followed by an examination of some relationships of special importance in explaining the tenets of Islam. The first is the relationship between the spiritual and physical aspects of Islamic teachings. The second is the relationship between the concepts of the mind, self, soul, spirit, and happiness. The third is the relationship between the heart and the mind. With God’s will, this book has been completed and published on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites: ccun.org and aljazeerah.info.

The second book (The Five Pillars of Islam: A Scientific View of the Two Proclamations of Faith, Prayer, Charity, Fasting, and Pilgrimage) includes five chapters, providing basic information about the first level of faith (Islam), as manifested in the five pillars of the faith structure. These are the Islamic proclamation of faith, performing prayers, giving Zakat (charity), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and making the Haj (pilgrimage) to the House of Allah in Makkah, once in a person’s lifetime, if possible. Each one of these mandated ways of worship is explained in terms of rationale, rules, and practices, directly from the verses of the Holy Quran, ‘Hadeeths explaining them, and interpretations of Islamic scholars. In addition, contemporary scientific research is used to show the benefits of performing them, to the individual and to society. This book has also been completed and published, together with the first book, in one volume, on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.

The following three remaining books address the second level of faith (Ieman), namely, the belief in Allah (the God) and in His angels, messengers, messages, the Last Day, as well as in His precise measurement and His just decrees. Thus, the third book (Allah, His Good Names: Who Is He? What Does He Want for Humans?) aims at knowing about Allah, praise to Him, through His names and His adjectives, which He mentioned in the Holy Quran. It also contains His rationale for the creation of humans on the Earth. This book has also been completed and published on amazon.com, to enable readers to get it as a paper copy. In addition, it is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.

The fourth book (Messengers of Allah to His Intelligent Creations) contains seven chapters, about the Messengers of Allah, praise to Him, to humans and jinn. It starts with a chapter about angels, who are the honored worshippers and messengers of Allah to His creations. Then, there are five chapters about the five human messengers, known for their determination and for the miracles they were provided with. These are Noo’h, Ibraheem, Moosa, ‘Eisa, and Mu’hammed (Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mu’hammed), peace and blessings of Allah be upon them. The seventh chapter is about the Night Journey and Ascent to heavens (Al-Isra Wal Mi’raj), which was a miracle, honoring the final Prophet of Allah. It was also a glad tiding to humans, that they can fly over the regions of the Earth, and through space to heavens, with permission of Allah. This book has not been published as a paper copy yet. However, its English version is available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.

The fifth book (God’s Precise Measurement, His Just Decrees, and the Last Day) addresses the remaining articles of the second level of faith (Ieman). It contains three chapters, about signs of the Hour, the Last Day, as well as God’s Precise Measurement and His Just Decrees (Al-Qadar wal Qadha). This book has not been published as a paper copy yet. However, the English versions of its second and third chapters are available to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above.

Concerning the third level of faith (I’hsan), it will be addressed, God willing, in two books. The sixth book (An Introduction to Islamic Shari’a: Commands of Prohibition and Admonition in the Holy Quran”) is available, as an initial draft version, to readers for free reading and downloading on the author’s two websites, mentioned above. The seventh book is a continuation of the “Introduction to Islamic Shari’a,” but it contains “God’s commands of Justice and Righteousness.” It has not been completed yet.

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Table of Contents

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 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 001

Chapter 1: God's Physical Features ………………………………………………………………………… 002

Chapter 2: Why Did Allah Create Humans on Earth? …………………………………………………….. 006

Chapter 3: Methodological Background …………………………………………………………………….. 010

Chapter 4: The Longer List of the Good Names of Allah ………………………………………………….. 017

Chapter 5: Verbal Names, Unique Qualities Denied to Others, and Deducted Traits ………………….. 281

Table 1: The Arabic Longer List of 151 Good Names of Allah in Arabic …………………………………. 297

Table 2: English Translation of the Longer List of 151 Good Names of Allah …………………………… 298

Table 3: The Arabic Shortened List of 99 Good Names of Allah in Arabic ………………………………. 299

Table 4: The English Shortened List of 99 Good Names of Allah in English …………………………….. 300

Documentation and Elaboration Notes ………………………………...………………………………... 301-388

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The list of 151 Good Names of Allah, as numbered in this book:

1.     اللهُ Allah (The God) …………………………………………………………………………………….. 018

 

2.     إلَهُ God …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 020

 

3.     إِلَٰهُ النَّاسِ God of the People …………………………………………………………………………… 021

 

4.     الرَّحْمَـٰنُ The Beneficent ……………………………………………………………………………….. 023

 

5.     الرَّحِيمُ The Merciful …………………………………………………………………………………...... 027

 

6.     أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ The Most Merciful …………………………………………………………………….. 029

 

7.     خَيْرُ الرَّاحِمِينَ The Best of the Merciful ………………………………………………………………. 030

 

8.     ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ The One with (Possessor of) Mercy …………………………………………………….. 033

 

9.     الْمَلِكُ The King, The Sovereign ……………………………………………………………………….. 034

 

10.  الْمَلِيكُ The Great King, The Great Sovereign …………………………..…………………………… 036

 

11.  مَالِكُ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ Owner of the Day of Accountability ………………………………..……………….. 037

 

12.  مَالِكُ الْمُلْكِ Owner of the Dominion ……………………………………………..……………………. 038

 

13.  الْقُدُّوسُ The Holy …………………………………………………………………..…………………… 040

 

14.  السَّلَامُ The Peace ……………………………………………………………………..………………... 042

 

15.  الْمُؤْمِنُ The Believer in His Godhood, The safeguard of Believers ……………..………………… 044

 

16.  الْمُهَيْمِنُ The Predominant ………………………………………………………..……………………. 046

 

17.  الْعَزِيزُ The Exalted in His Rare Might ……………………………………………..…………………. 047

 

18.  الْجَبَّارُ The Compeller ……………………………………………………………….…………………. 050

 

19.  الْمُتَكَبِّرُ The Superior …………………………………………………………………….……………... 051

 

20.  الْخَالِقُ The Creator ……………………………………………………………….…………………….. 052

 

21.  الْخَلَّاقُ The Creative and Constant Creator …………………………………………………………. 054

 

22.  أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ The Best of Creators ……………………….………………………………………… 055

 

23.  الْبَارِئُ The Maker, The Inventor, the Curer …………………………………………………………. 057

 

24.  الْبَدِيعُ Originator of the Heavens and the Earth ……………...……………………………………… 059

 

25.  الفَاطِرُ First Creator of the Heavens and the Earth …………………………………………………. 060

 

26.  الْمُصَوِّرُ The Fashioner, The Shaper ………………………………………...………………………. 062

 

27.  غَافِرُ الذَّنْبِ Forgiver of Sin …………………………………………………………………………….. 064

 

28.  الْغَفُور The Perpetual Forgiver ………………………………………………………………………… 066

 

29.  الْغَفَّارُ The Most Forgiving …………………………………………………………...………………… 068

 

30.  خَيْرُ الْغَافِرِينَ The Best of Forgivers ………………………………………………………………….. 069

 

31.  ذُو المَغْفِرَةٍ The One with (Possessor of) Forgiveness ……………………………………………… 070

 

32.  وَاسِعُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ The Vast in Forgiveness ………………………………………………………………. 071

 

33.  أَهْلُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ The Source of Forgiveness …………………………………...………………………… 073

 

34.  أَهْلُ التَّقْوَىٰ The Source of Righteousness …………………………………………………………… 074

 

35.  الْقَاهِرُ The Subduer …………………………………………………………………………………….. 077

 

36.  الْقَهَّارُ The Prevailing Subduer ………………………………………………………………………… 078

 

37.  الْوَهَّابُ The Bestower ………………………………………………………………………………….. 080

 

38.  الرَّزَّاقُ The Provider, The Sustainer …………………………………………………………………. 081

 

39.  خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ The Best of Providers, The Best of Sustainers ………………………..…………… 083

 

40.  الْفَتَّاحُ The Opener, The Judge …………………………………………………….………………….. 085

 

41.  خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ The Best of Openers, The Best of Judges ……………………….………………….. 086

 

42.  الْعَلِيمُ The Knowing, The Knowledgeable, The Omniscient …………………………….………….. 087

 

43.  عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ Knower of the Unknown …………………………………………………….……………. 090

 

44.  عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ Knower of the Unknown and the Known ……………………….……………. 091

 

45.  عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ Knower of the Unknowns ……………………………………………….……………… 093

 

46.  وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ   Vast (Encompassing), Knowing …………………………………………..……………. 094

 

47.  الْمُحِيطُ The Surrounding and Encompassing (in His Knowledge and Power) ………….……….. 096

 

48.  السَّمِيعُ The Hearer, The All-Hearing ……………………………………………………….…………. 098

 

49.  الْبَصِيرُ The Seer, The All-Seeing ……………………………………………………….……………. 101

 

50.  الْحَكِيمُ The Wise, The Judge, The Perfect …………………………………………..………..……… 103

 

51.  خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ The Best of Judges ………………………………………………………….………… 105

 

52.  أَحْكَمُ الْحَاكِمِينَ The Wisest of Judges ……………………………………………………..………….. 107

 

53.  وَاسِعٌ حَكِيمٌ   Vast, Encompassing in His Wise Judgment ………..…...…………………………... 108

 

54.  اللَّطِيفُ The Subtle, The Gentle, The Gracious to His Creations ………………..………………… 109

 

55.  الْخَبِيرُ The Expert, The Acquainted ……………………………………………..……………………. 112

 

56.  الْحَلِيمُ The Forbearer …………………………………………………………………………………… 115

 

57.  الشَاكِرُ The Thankful, The Appreciative ……………………………………………………………… 117

 

58.  الشَكُورُ The Most Thankful, The Most Appreciative ………………………………………………… 118

 

59.  الْعَلِيُّ The High ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119

 

60.  الْمُتَعَالُ The Higher than His Creations ………………………………………………………………. 121

 

61.  الأعْلَى The Highest …………………………………………………………………………………….. 122

 

62.  الْكَبِيرُ The Grand ………………………...……………………………………………………………... 124

 

63.  العَظِيمُ The Great ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 126

 

64.  الحَافِظُ The Preserver, The Guardian, The Protector, The Watcher ………………………………. 129

 

65.  الحَفِيظُ The Strong Preserver, Guardian, Protector, Watcher ………………...….………………... 130

 

66.  المُّقِيتُ The Sustainer, The Provider of Sustenance ………………………………………………… 131

 

67.  الحَسِيبُ The Reckoner, The Accountant, The Calculator ………………………………………….. 132

 

68.  سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ The Fast in Reckoning, Accounting, and Calculation …………………………….. 134

 

69.  أَسْرَعُ الْحَاسِبِينَ The Fastest of Accountants, Calculators, and Reckoners ………...……………. 136  

 

70.  الْكَرِيمُ The Generous …………………………………………………………………...……………… 136

 

71.  الْأكْرَمُ The Most Generous ……………………………………………………………………………. 138

 

72.  الرَّقِيبُ The Watchful, The Observer …………………………………………………………………. 140

 

73.  القَرِيبُ The Nearby, The Close ……………………………………………………………………….. 140

 

74.  المُّجِيبُ The Responder, The Responsive ………………………………...…………………………. 141

 

75.  نِعْمَ الْمُجِيبُونَ Praised is the Best of the Responders ……………………………………………….. 144

 

76.  الْوَدُودُ The Loving, The Affectionate …………………………...…………………………………….. 145

 

77.  الْحَمِيدُ The Praised, The Praiseworthy ………………………………………………………………. 147

 

78.  الْمَجِيدُ The Glorious ……………………………………………………………………………………. 149

 

79.  الشَهِيدُ The Witness ………………………………………..…………………………………………… 151

 

80.  الْحَقُّ The Truth, The Right ……………………………………………………………………………. 152

 

81.  الْمُبِينُ The Manifester ………………………………………………………………………………….. 155

 

82.  الْوَكِيلُ The Disposer of Affairs ………………………………………………………………………… 156

 

83.  نِعْمَ الْوَكِيلِ Praised is the Best Disposer of Affairs ………………………………………………….. 159

 

84.  الْكَافِي The Sufficient …………………………………...………………………………………………. 160

 

85.  الْقَوِيُّ The Powerful …………………………………………………………………………………….. 161

 

86.  ذُو الْقُوَّةِ Possessor of the Power ……………………………………………………………………… 164

 

87.  الْمَتِينُ The Strong ………………………………………………………………………………………. 165

 

88.  الْمُسْتَعَانُ The One Sought for Help …………………………………………………………………… 166

 

89.  الْوَلِيُّ The General Caretaker …………………………………………………………………………. 167

 

90.  المَوْلَى The Special Caretaker …………………………………………………...……………………. 168

 

91.  نِعْمَ المَوْلَى Praised is the Best Special Caretaker …………………………………………………... 171

 

92.  النَّصِيرُ The Supporter ……………………………………...………………………………………….. 172

 

93.  نِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ Praised is the Best Supporter …………………………………………………………… 172

 

94.  خَيْرُ النَّاصِرِينَ The Best of Supporters ………………………………………………………………. 173

 

95.  خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ The Best of Planners …………………………………..……………………………… 174

 

96.  خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ The Best of Deciders …………………………………………………………………. 176

 

97.  الْهَادِي The Guide to the Right Path ………………………………………………………………….. 177

 

98.  الْحَيُّ The Eternally Living ……………………………………………………………………………… 178

 

99.  مُحْيِي الْمَوْتَى Reviver of the Dead ……………………………………………………………………. 183

 

100.  مُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ Bringer of the Dead from the Living ………………………...……………. 184

 

101.  الْقَيُّومُ The Sustainer of the Universe ……………………………………...………………………… 185

 

102.  الْوَاحِدُ The One (God) ………………………………………………………………………………… 186

 

103.  الْأَحَدُ The Uniquely One (God) ………………………………………………………………………. 188

 

104.  الصَّمَدُ The Eternal, Self-Sufficient, and the Absolute ………………………...…………………… 189 

 

105.  غَالِبٌ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِ The Predominant Over His Affairs ……………………………………………….. 190

 

106.  فَعَّالٌ لِّمَا يُرِيدُ Doer of What He Wants ………………………………………………………………. 191

 

107.  الْقَادِرُ The Able …………………………...……………………………………………………………. 193

 

108.  القَدِيرُ The Capable ……………………………………...…………………………………………….. 195

 

109.  المُّقْتَدِرُ The Perfect in Ability …………………………………………………………………………. 197

 

110.  نِعْمَ الْقادِرُونَ Praised is the Best of the Capable ……………………………………………….….. 198

 

111.  نِعْمَ الْمَاهِدونَ Praised is the Best of the Preparers ………………………………………………… 200

 

112.  الْأَوَّلُ The First ………………………………………………...………………………………………. 201

 

113.  الْآخِرُ The Last ………………………………………………………………………………………… 202

 

114.  الظَّاهِرُ The Manifest ………………………………………………………………………………….. 203

 

115.  الْبَاطِنُ The Latent ……………………………………………………………………………………… 205

 

116.  الْبَرُّ The Good, The Kind ……………………………...……………………………………………… 206

 

117.  التَّوَّابُ The Acceptant of Repentance …………………………...………………………………….. 208

 

118.  قَابِلُ التَّوْبِ The Acceptor of Repentance …………………………………………………………… 209

 

119.  الْعَفُوّ The Pardoner ……………………………………………………………………………………. 212

 

120.  الرَؤوفُ The Kind ……………………………………………………………………………………… 214

 

121.  الْغَنِيُّ The Rich, The Free of Need, The Self-Sufficient, ……...…………………………………… 216

 

122.  نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضِ Light of the Heavens and the Earth …………………………………….. 221

 

123.  الْوَارِثُ The Inheritor ………………………………………………………………………………….. 226

 

124.  خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ The Best of Inheritors ………………………………………………………………… 228

 

125.  خَيْرُ الْمُنْزِلِينَ The Best of Accommodators, the Best of Descenders ………………..………….. 230

 

126.  فَالِقُ الْإصْبَاحِ Cleaver (Splitter) of the Day Break …………………………………………………. 232

 

127.  فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَىٰ Cleaver (Splitter) of grain and seeds ………………………………………….. 233

 

128.  شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ The Severe (Utmost) in Powers and Capabilities ……………...…………………… 236

 

129.  شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ The Severe in Punishment …….………………………………………………………. 237

 

130.  شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ The Severe in Torment ………………………………………………………………… 238

 

131.  ذُو عِقَابٍ أَلِيمٍ The One with the Painful Punishment ………………………………………………. 241

 

132.  ذُو انتِقَامٍ The One with Revenge …………………………………………………………………….. 241

 

133.  ذُو الْفَضْلِ The One with (Possessor of) Favors …………………………………………………… 243

 

134.  ذُو الطَّوْلِ The One with (Possessor of) Abundance ………………………………………………. 246

 

135.  ذُو الْمَعَارِجِ The One with the Ascents ……………………………………………………………… 247

 

136.  ذُو الْعَرْشِ The One with the Throne ………………………………………………………………… 248

 

137.  ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ One with the Majesty and Honor ………………………..…..……………….. 251

 

138.  رَفِيعُ الدَّرَجَاتِ The Highest in Ranks ……………………………………………………………….. 252

 

139.  الرَبُّ Lord …………………………………………………………………………..…….……………. 254

 

140.  رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ The Lord of the Throne ………………………………………………………………… 257

 

141.  رَبُّ الْعِزَّةِ Lord of the Might …………………………………………………………………………. 258

 

142.  رَبُّ الشِّعْرَى Lord of Sirius (the known star) ………………………………………………………. 260

 

143.  رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ Lord of the Heavens and the Earth …………………………………….. 262

 

144.  رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا Lord of the Heavens, the Earth, and What is Between them .264

 

145.  رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ Lord of the Sunrise and the Sunset ……………………………………… 267

 

146.  رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقَيْنِ وَرَبُّ الْمَغْرِبَيْنِ Lord of the Two Sunrises and the Two Sunsets ……………….. 268

 

147.  رَبُّ الْمَشَارِقِ وَالْمَغَارِبِ Lord of the Sunrises and the Sunsets …………………………………. 270

 

148.  رَبُّ الْفَلَقِ Lord of the Daybreak ……………………………………………………………………… 273

 

149.  رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ Lord of Everything ……………………………………………………………………. 274

 

150.  رَبُّ النَّاسِ Lord of the People ……………………………………………………………………….. 275

 

151.  رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ Lord of the Worlds …………………………………………………………………….. 277

 


Introduction

 

أعُوذُ باللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Allah, praise to Him, in His Highness (Sub’hanahu wa Ta'ala) has instructed Muslims to "seek refuge with Him from the Stoned Shaytan (Cursed and expelled Satan)," whenever they start reciting the Holy Book Al-Na’hl, 16: 98). This also applies to prayers, before starting the recitation of the first Chapter of the Holy Quran, and at the start of any action, to be shielded against the evil of the Shaytan whispering. In addition, the description of the Shaytan (Satan) as "Stoned" is a reference to the story of Ibraheem (Abraham), peace be upon him, who threw stones at the Shaytan, when he tried to dissuade him away from obedience to Allah, as we learn from the ‘Hadith. [1]

So, I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan, in the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful, and peace and blessing be upon His final Messenger, Mu’hammed, his family, his Companions, and those who follow his guidance, until the Day of Recompense.

This Book is About Allah, Praise to Him, as He has described Himself in the Holy Quran. It attempts to provide information about Who He is and what He wants for us, humans.

It is divided into five chapters and a section containing the book notes, which includes the documentation and referencing of the Holy Quran verses and 'Hadiths, mentioned in various chapters. It also addresses some topics with more details than mentioned in the book chapters.

The first chapter addresses the topic of God’s physical features, which He has mentioned in the Holy Quran. The second chapter attempts to explain why Allah has created humans, on Earth, and what He wants for them. The third chapter is about the methodological background of writing about the Good Names of Allah. The fourth chapter is the largest in this book. It contains a list of the Good Names of Allah, which represent His traits and capabilities, as mentioned literally and directly in Holy Quran, with verse references and explanation of each Name, and how its meanings can be applied to our everyday life. The fifth chapter includes three categories of the attributes of Allah, which have not been included in the long list of the Good Names of Allah. These are verbal names, qualities of Allah which are denied to others, and traits deducted by other authors. The fifth chapter also provides a table containing the 151 listed Good Names of Allah, which are mentioned in the fourth chapter. Finally, the fifth chapter provides another table, which contains the 99 Good Names of Allah, as selected by this author, in response to the call of the Prophet, pbbuh, to Muslims. This list is selected from the larger list mentioned in the fourth chapter and first table, after the exclusion of other Names, which are derivatives of the same root verb. 

This author is solely responsible for the translation of the verses and the ‘Hadeeths mentioned in this book. This applies to both the specific translation of meanings and the summary translation of verse interpretations, which are attributed to the cited Islamic scholars. [2]

*** *** ***

***

 

Allah,

His Good Names,

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

 

***

Chapter 1

 

God's Physical Features

 

***

أعُوذُ باللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

***


Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) is the One, the Eternal, “Whom none has ever been equal to,” as stated in Surat Al-Ikhlas (112: 1-4). “There is nothing like Him,” as stated in Surat Al-Shoora (42: 11).

With that stated, several verses of the Holy Quran mention some physical features of Allah. Al-Tabari mentioned that the tradition of early Muslim scholars is to mention these physical features of God, as described in the Holy Quran and the ‘Hadith, without trying to equate them with the physical features of humans. [3]

Here are few examples of the physical features of Allah, praise to Him, from the Holy Quran, which mention that He sat on the Throne, He hears and sees, and He has a face and two hands.

1. Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Face, which illuminates (gives light to) the Throne, as interpreted by scholars, in Ayatul Kursi (The Verse of the Chair) above. Believers direct their prayers and good deeds to the Face of Allah, as in verses 2: 115, 2: 272, 30: 38, 30: 39, and 76: 9 of the Holy Quran.

وَلِلَّـهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّـهِ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 115).

وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنْفُسِكُمْ وَمَا تُنْفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ (الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 272).  

فَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ لِلَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ  (الرُّومُ ، 30: 38).

وَمَا آتَيْتُمْ مِنْ زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ  (الرُّومُ ، 30: 39).

إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنْكُمْ جَزَاءً وَلَا شُكُورًا  (الإنْسَانُ ، 76: 9).

To Allah belong (the directions of) the sunrise and the sunset. Whichever (direction) you turn to, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Vast (and) Knowledgeable (Al-Baqara, 2: 115).

Whatever good you spend is for yourselves, (provided that) you give it seeking the Face of Allah. And whatever good you spend shall be repaid to you (in full), you shall not be treated unjustly (Al-Baqara, 2: 272).

And give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the destitute traveler. That is best for those who want the Face of Allah, and those are the winners (Al-Room, 30: 38).

That which you give in Zakat (charity), wanting the Face of Allah, those (amounts) will be multiplied many times (for you in rewards) (Al-Room, 30: 39)

'We feed you for the Face of Allah, we neither want a reward from you nor gratitude (Al-Insan, 76: 9).

2. Some verses of the Holy Quran mention that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, has a Throne to sit on, as follows:

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّـهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ (الأعْرَافُ ، 7: 54 ).

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّـهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّـهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ (يُونُسُ ، 10: 3).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne (Al-A'araf, 7: 54).

Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the Heavens and the Earth in six days, then sat on the Throne, governing (His creation). There is no intercessor except by His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Will you not remember? (Younus, 10: 3).

3. The Verse of the Chair (2: 255), mentioned in the Good Name of Allah, Al-‘Hayyu (the Eternally Living), tells us that Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, has a Chair to put His Feet on, as mentioned in the authentic (Sa’hi’h) ‘Hadith. [4]

4. The following verses tell us that Allah, praise to Him, has Hands, extending them with provision for His creations and with support for those who believe in Him. With His Hands, He gives or denies that which He wills for whom He wills. He has power over all things.

إنَّ الْفَضْلَ بِيَدِ اللَّـهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّـهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ (آلِ عِمْرَانَ ، 3: 73).

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللَّـهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُوا بِمَا قَالُوا بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ (المائدة ، 5: 64).

وَمَن يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ (النَّمْلُ ، 27: 63).

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ الْمُلْكُ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (الْمُلْكُ ، 67: 1).

قُلِ اللَّـهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ تُؤْتِي الْمُلْكَ مَن تَشَاءُ وَتَنزِعُ الْمُلْكَ مِمَّن تَشَاءُ وَتُعِزُّ مَن تَشَاءُ وَتُذِلُّ مَن تَشَاءُ بِيَدِكَ الْخَيْرُ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ )آلِ عِمْرَانَ ، 3: 26(.

The bounty is in the Hand of Allah, He gives it to whomsoever He wills. Allah is Vast, Knowledgeable (Al-'Imran, 3: 73).

The Jews said: "The Hand of Allah is chained." It is their hands, which are chained, and they were cursed for what they said. Rather, His both Hands are extended (with provision), He spends as He wills (Al-Maeda, 5: 64).

And Who sends the winds bearing glad tidings between Both Hands of His Mercy (Al-Naml, 27: 63).

Blessed be He in whose Hand is the Kingdom, He is powerful over all things (Al-Mulk, 67: 1).

Say: 'O Allah, Owner of the Sovereignty (Power). You give the governance to whom You will and take the governance away from whom You will. You exalt whom You will and debase whom You will. In Your Hand is good. You have power over all things (Al-'Imran, 3: 26).

The three renowned Muslim scholars related three interpretations for Verse 3: 26, which mentioned the hand of Allah, praise to Him, as follows:

The first interpretation focused on stating that the good, power, and exaltedness are in the Hand of Allah. He gives or denies them to that which He wills. He took them out of the Children of Israel because they rejected God's message, which was delivered to them by Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. Instead, He exalted His Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, by giving him the final and complete Message of God to Humanity.

The second interpretation mentioned that the verse was about the Christians of Najran, in southern Arabia, who worshipped Jesus Christ as God, just because he showed miracles to the Children of Israel, to persuade them to believe in him as a Messenger of God. In this Verse, Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, is telling worshippers of Jesus that only God can exalt somebody like Jesus to perform such miracles, as He is powerful over all things.

The third interpretation was that the verse was revealed in response to a call by Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, who asked Allah, praise to Him, to support Muslims in conquering the Persian and Roman empires. The call was answered when the entire Persian empire was conquered by Muslims and the Persian Nation became a Muslim nation contributing to the spread of Islam in Asia. In addition, most of the Roman empire was conquered by Muslims, particularly eastern (Levant), western (Spain), and southern (North African) Mediterranean coasts. Only the northern Mediterranean coasts stayed under the Roman rule until the rise of the Ottoman empire, when Greece and major parts of eastern Europe became under the Muslim Ottoman rule.

5. Many verses of the Holy Quran state that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, hears and sees. He is also described as Hearer and Seer, as well as The Hearer and The Seer.

There are 47 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as Samee' (Hearer)." There are 20 verses which describe Him as Al-Samee'a (The Hearer).

There are 42 verses in the Holy Quran, in which Allah is described as "Baseer," (Seer). There are three verses which describe Him as Al-Baseer (The Seer). These are Al-Isra (17 :1), Al-Shoora (42: 11), and Ghafir (40: 20).

In the following three verses, Allah, praise to Him in His Highness, states that He hears and sees:

قَالَ لَا تَخَافَا إِنَّنِي مَعَكُمَا أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَىٰ (طَهَ ، 20: 46).

لَّقَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ فَقِيرٌ وَنَحْنُ أَغْنِيَاءُ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا قَالُوا وَقَتْلَهُمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَنَقُولُ ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ (آلِ ِعْمَرَانَ ، 3: 181).

قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّـهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ (الْمُجَادِلَةُ ، 58: 1).

(Allah) said: Do not fear (the Pharaoh), I am with you: I hear and see (everything) (Ta Ha, 20: 46).

Allah has heard the taunt of those who said: "Allah is poor and we are rich!" We shall write (record) what they said and (write) their killing of the prophets without a right (to do so), and We shall say (to them): "Taste the torture of the (Scorching) Fire (Al-'Imran, 3: 181).

Allah has heard the saying (statement) of (the woman) who argues with you about her husband; and she complains (in prayer) to Allah; and Allah hears your dialogue. Indeed, Allah is Hearer and Seer (Al-Mujadalah, 58: 1).

6. The human being has a face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet as his/her Creator has His own, which do not necessarily look like those of humans. Thus, Allah, praise to Him, created humans in the best image, as stated in Verse 95: 4.

لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ (التِّينُ ، 95: 4).

Al-Tabari and Ibn Katheer interpreted the last word of the verse, "Taqweem," as "Soorah," the accurate translation of which is "image." Al-Qurtubi also interpreted it as image but added that Allah, Praise to Him in His Highness, created human beings on His Image, the Best Image. They have face, eyes, ears, hands, and feet, as He has. They also have some of His traits, which are blown into them from His Spirit, such as justice, mercy, and compassion. He distinguished them from His other creations on Earth by enabling them of walking upright, speaking, knowing right and wrong, and having the capability to choose between them. The same meaning came in verse 64: 3, as follows:

خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ ۖ وَإِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ (التَّغَابُنُ ، 64: 3).

He created the heavens and the Earth in truth and made your images in the best of images, and to Him is the (final) destination (Al-Taghabun, 64: 3).

*** *** ***


 

Allah,

His Good Names,

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

 

***

Chapter 2

 

Why Did Allah Create Humans on Earth?

 

***

أعُوذُ باللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

***

 

In this section, there is an attempt to explain why Allah, praise to Him, has created humans, in their lower life on Earth, and what He wants for them.

1. We learn from the Holy Quran that Allah has created the Jinn and humans for the sole purpose of worshipping Him (51: 56). He also told us that we worship Him by performing the five mandatory ways of worship (the proclamation of faith, prayers, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage) and by practicing righteousness (doing good deeds). Thus, worshipping Allah aims at benefiting the worshipper first, then his/her family, community, society, and humanity, in this lower life and in the hereafter, as was discussed in the second part of this book. [5]

He mentioned that He did not create us in vain (23: 115), or playfully. Rather, the creation of the heavens, the Earth, and those in between was a serious endeavor (44: 38-39). In return, He wants His intelligent creations, jinn and humans, to worship Him by observing His commands, which benefits them, as we read in the Holy Quran verses and the Prophet’s ‘Hadiths. [6]

Allah, praise to Him, explained righteousness (doing good deeds) in three terms: Bir, Taqwa, and I’hsan. Bir (Righteousness) is (practiced by the) one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets, and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask (for help), and for freeing slaves; (and who) establishes prayer and gives zakat; (those who) fulfill their promise when they promise; and (those who) are patient in poverty, hardship, and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the Muttaqoon (righteous) (Al-Baqara, 2: 177).

Thus, it is noteworthy that in verse 2: 177, the term of Bir includes all articles of Iman (faith), two articles (requirements) of Islam (prayer and giving zakat), and some aspects of I’hsan (keeping promises, patience, and truthfulness.). Another observation is that those who do these “Bir” deeds are also Muttaqoon (righteous).  This means that the Bir good deeds are also the same Taqwa good deeds but performed from two different perspectives. Bir is doing good deeds in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, for the love of doing them, and for knowing of their benefits for the individual, family, and society. Taqwa is also doing the same good deeds, in obedience to Allah, praise to Him, but to avoid His punishment.

There are many verses in the Holy Quran, which mention this meaning for the term of Taqwa. It refers to God’s anger and His punishment (5: 2), avoidance of punishment in the Fire (3: 131), and avoidance of trials or ordeal (8: 25). [7]

The third Quran term for doing good deeds (righteousness) is I’hsan, which is a derivative of the Arabic verb a’hsana (to do things better). As such, it means saying and doing as best as a person can, which is possible by following God’s commands, avoiding His prohibitions, and calling for His sake.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah commands I’hsan (16: 90), in words and deeds (41: 33), commands good treatment of parents (17: 23), praises those who practice I’hsan by declaring His love for them (2: 195), assures them that they should not be afraid or sad (2: 112), and promises them with great rewards in His Paradise (5: 85). [8]

Many verses of the Holy Quran tell us that I’hsan is represented by spending in the way of Allah and by not committing self-inflected harm (2: 195), restraint and forgiveness (3: 134), by not corrupting the Earth and by calling on Allah, looking for His rewards and for avoidance of His punishment (7: 56), by being sincere in following God’s commands and teachings of His Messenger (9: 91), by patience (11: 115), by practicing Taqwa (22: 37), and by fighting for His sake ((29: 69). [9] 

The Prophet, pbbuh, provided us with examples on the practical application of the three terms. In one ‘Hadith, he said that I’hsan “is to worship Allah as if you are seeing him, and while you do not see Him, He truly sees you.” Thus, I'hsan is saying and doing only that which pleases Allah and conforms to His commands. This is the level of righteousness, perfection, as well as doing and saying the ultimate good for the sake of goodness and righteousness, to the person’s best knowledge and ability.

In another ‘Hadith, he said that he was sent to complete (teach people) “the best of manners.” In a third ‘Hadith, he defined Taqwa, as truth of the tongue, purity of the heart from sinning, transgression, or envy. It is good manners and love of the latter life more than this lower life. In a fourth ‘Hadith, he said: “Do not envy, desert (avoid), hate, plot against each other, or do ill outbidding. Be worshippers of Allah and brothers. A Muslim is a brother to a Muslim, he does not transgress on him, let him down, or despise him. Taqwa is here (pointing to his chest). Despising a Muslim brother is an evil act. It is prohibited to violate a Muslim’s blood, wealth, and honor (women). [10]

***

2. If we think about effects of performing the mandatory ways of worship (‘Ibadat) and doing good deeds (Bir, Taqwa, and I’hsan) on people, it becomes clear that these are ways to train humans to be good beings during their lower life on Earth, to prepare them to be better beings in the latter life. Thus, they become qualified to inhabit God’s universe and lead an everlasting life in His Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, ready to house the righteous ones.

The Holy Quran tells us that Allah has created heavens and Earth as well as death and life, to try people and see who is the best in deeds? (11: 7, 67: 1-2). He made heavens and Earth, day and night, as well as the sun, the moon, and the stars for the benefit of humans (35: 13, 16: 12). Further, He encouraged jinn and humans to travel in space and attempt to enter regions of heavens (55: 33). He declared that He prepared Paradise, which is as wide as heavens and Earth, for the righteous ones, those who practice Taqwa (3: 133). We are also told that those who believe and do good deeds will enter gardens (of Paradise), leading an everlasting life therein (4: 57). Those are the best of humans (58: 7-8). However, those who disbelieve in God’s verses (4: 56), and disobey Allah and His Messenger, will be doomed in the Hellfire, forever (72: 22-23). [11]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, gave us examples about the categories of people who are going to end up in Paradise or the Fire. He said that while the weak and the needy will gain the mercy of Allah and enter His Paradise, the tyrants and the arrogant ones will gain His discontent and enter the Fire. In another ‘Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that when believers are cleared from the Fire, they get out to a bridge between the Fire and Paradise, where they are held accountable for the injustices they commit against each other, during their lower life. After their refinement and purification over there, they will be permitted to enter Paradise. In a third ‘Hadith, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said that ultimately people will enter Paradise from any of its eight gates, if they proclaim that there is no other god but Allah, and Muhammed is the worshipper of Allah and His Messenger, as well as ‘Eissa (Jesus) is the worshipper of Allah, His Messenger, His Word He threw to Maryam, and a Spirit of Him. [12]

***

3. Thus, by commanding humans to perform the mandatory ways of worship and doing good deeds, Allah, praise to Him, wants their good in their lower life and in the hereafter. While He is in no need for their worship (35: 15), He rejoices their righteousness (22: 37), which is based on their free will (76: 3, 90: 10). He has known that many humans are going to be good, in words and deeds, as He told His skeptical angels: “I know that which you do not know” (2: 30).

Moreover, Allah, praise to Him, does not like to punish people if they are grateful and believe in Him (4: 147). He may not even pay attention to them if they do not call on Him (25: 77). If He holds people accountable for their wrongdoing during their lower life, He will destroy them, but He is delaying their punishment (16: 61). If people disbelieve, after their belief in Allah, He will replace them with other people who love Him, and He loves them (5: 54). [13]

The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, told us about some categories of believers, whom He loves because they have some of His characteristics. He is generous and giver. He likes high manners and hates low behaviors. In another ‘Hadith, he said that Allah likes it for a person to do his/her good deed as perfect as possible. In a third ‘Hadith, he said that the true good (rewards for a person’s work) is that of the hereafter (not that which one receives in the lower life). [14]

***

4. In conclusion, the human caliphate (mandate to rule over Earth) is an honor bestowed on humans by their Creator, praise to Him (17: 70). It is also a piece of evidence that He trusts them to be responsible and successful in the test of their lower life (33: 72-73, 11: 61). Such success leads many of them to become good beings by choice, which qualifies them to be able to inhabit God’s Paradise, in His vast universe, in the hereafter (7: 43). [15]   

To encourage Muslims to be successful in their lower life test, the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, advised them to lead a life of a stranger or a traveler. He also advised them to do the best of deeds, which would benefit them most in the hereafter. These are a continuing charity, such as an endowment, knowledge which benefits people, and leaving behind good children, who supplicate to Allah to make them of the people of Paradise. The Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, also gave believers the glad tiding that their Lord has prepared for them that which no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, and no human has ever been able to imagine about the pleasures of their life in His Paradise. [16]

*** *** ***

***

 


 

Allah,

His Good Names,

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

 

***

Chapter 3

 

Methodological Background

 

of Writing About the Good Names of Allah

 

***

أعُوذُ باللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

***

 

Introduction

 

This Chapter contains a list of the Good Names of Allah, which were identified literally and directly from the Holy Quran. Each name is referenced by citing some of the verses in which it is mentioned. Then, it is explained according to the meanings understood from the verses, including the interpretations of the three renowned Muslim scholars, Al-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Katheer, may Allah reward them for their great works, particularly the ‘Hadiths included in their interpretations. Moreover, further explanations of the meanings of the Names were sought from the books of two earlier scholars, Al-Ghazali and Al-Qurtubi, as well as from three contemporary scholars, Al-Sha’rawi, Al-Qaradhawi, and Al-Najdi, may Allah reward them for their valuable works on this subject. Finally, a list of the Good Names of Allah is reached, on the basis of literal description of Allah, praise to Him, of Himself. [17]

Some translators translated the "Good Names of Allah" also as the "Most Beautiful Names of Allah."

There are many websites in Arabic, English, and other languages, which mention, list, or translate the Good Names of Allah. Some Arabic websites provide citations for the verses which mention them, as well as interpretations and explanations of their meanings. Others just mention one-word translation for each name without interpretations or explanations. Almost all of these websites use the disputed list, which was attached to the ‘Hadith recorded by Al-Tirmidthi and narrated by Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh. That list combines some of the Good Names of Allah (which are stated clearly in the Holy Quran) with God's Attributes, which are deducted, understood, or concluded as a result of mentioning verbs or adjectives related to Him.

This author is providing readers with the following list of 151 Good Names of Allah, which is different from the above-mentioned lists, in that it only includes the Names that are mentioned as descriptions of Allah of Himself, clearly and directly in the Holy Quran, with citations for some of the verses they are mentioned in.

The list also includes Names, which are variants, based on the same root verb, but they are all authentic and directly mentioned in the Holy Quran. Most of them are presented as a singular- word Name, but the list also includes compound Names composed of several words. Thus, this list includes more of the Good Names of Allah than the traditional lists.

This is followed by a presentation of a shortened list of 99 Good Names of Allah, in response to the ‘Hadith of Prophet Muhammed, pbbuh, in which he encouraged us to search for and study them. The list includes 81 one-word Names and 18 Names composed of several or compound words, as mentioned in the Holy Quran.

This short list is selected by this author from the larger list mentioned in the fourth Chapter of this book, after the exclusion of other Names, which are derivatives of the same verb. For example, Al-Ra’heem (the Merciful) was selected to represent other Names, which are derived from the same root verb (Ar’ham Al-Ra’himeen, Khayr Al-Ra’himeen, and Dthu Al-Ra’hma). Al-Khaliq (the Creator) was selected to represent Al-Khallaq and A’hsan Al-Khaliqeen. Al-Ghafoor (the Perpetual in Forgiveness) was selected to represent Ghafir Al-Dthanb, Al-Ghaffar, Khayr Al-Ghafireen, Dthu Al-Maghfirah, Wasi’u Al-Maghfirah, and Ahlul Maghfirah. Al-Qahhar (the Constantly Subduer) was selected to represent Al-Qahir. Al-Rab (the Lord) was selected to represent the other ten Names, at the end of the list, which are derived from the same root verb.

However, this author does not claim that his list is exclusive. Actually, he encourages other researchers to study this list and to continue the work of finding and studying more of the Good Names of Allah.

Allah, praise to Him, mentions His Good Names and invites us in using them on calling upon Him, as in the following four verses:

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (الأعْرَافُ ، 7: 180).

قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَنَ أَيًّا مَا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى (الإسْرَاءُ ، 17: 110).

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى  (طَهَ ، 20: 8).

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى (الْحَشْرُ ، 59: 24).

To Allah belong the Good Names, so call upon Him by them, and keep away from those who distort His names. They will be punished for what they do (Al-A'araf, 7: 180).

Say: "Call upon Allah or call upon Al-Ra'hman (The Beneficent), whatever (name) you call upon Him, to Him belong the Good Names (Al-Isra, 17: 110).

Allah! There is no (other) God but He. To Him belong the Good Names (Taha, 20: 8).

He is Allah, the Creator, the Evolver, the Fashioner. To Him belong the Good Names (Al-'Hashr, 59: 24).

***

Likewise, Prophet Muhammed, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (pbbuh) told us to use the Good Names of Allah, in calling upon Him. He added that we only know some of these Names, which are revealed in the Holy Quran. However, there are others, which have not been revealed to us.

فعن عبد الله بن مسعود ، رضي الله عنه ، أن رسولَ اللهِ ، صلَّى اللهُ عليهِ وسلَّم ، قال : "اللهم ... أسألُك بكلِّ اسمٍ هو لك ، سَمَّيْتَ به نفسَك ، أو أَنْزَلْتَه في كتابِك ، أو عَلَّمْتَه أحدًا من خَلْقِكَ ، أو استأثرت به في علمِ الغيبِ عندك ، أن تَجعلَ القرآنَ ربيعَ قَلبي ، ونورَ صَدري ، وجلاءَ حُزْني ، وذَهابَ هَمِّي."

Companion ‘Abdullah Bin Mas’aud, mAbpwh, said that the Messenger of Allah, pbbuh, said: “O Allah … I’m asking you with every one of your Names, that with which you called Yourself, or You revealed in Your Book, or You taught one of Your Creations, or that which is unknown to us because You kept to Yourself. I’m asking you to make the Quran the spring (pleasure) of my heart, the light of my chest, the end of my sadness, and the going of my negative thinking about the future.” [18]

In another 'Hadith, the Prophet, pbbuh, urged Muslims to account for (search for, list, study, and observe) ninety-nine Good Names of Allah, encouraging them to know their Lord, to win His contentment, and consequently His everlasting Paradise. In that ‘Hadith, the Prophet's Companion Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, said that the Prophet, pbbuh, said:

"إِنَّ لِلَّهِ تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ اسْمًا ، مِائَةً غَيْرَ وَاحِدٍ ، مَنْ أَحْصَاهَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ." 

To Allah, there are ninety-nine names, one hundred minus one. Whoever accounts for (search for, list, study, and observe) them will enter Paradise. Allah is One. He likes this witr characteristic (The witr is an odd number, such as ninety-nine - Author's explanation). [19]

Early Islamic scholars, like Al-Ghazali, Al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Taymiyah, as well as contemporary ones, like Al-Sha’rawi, Al-Qaradhawi, and Al-Qa'htani, may Allah reward all of them for their great efforts, provided a useful explanation for this ‘Hadith. They said that it does not mean that Allah has only ninety-nine Good Names. Rather, the Prophet, pbbuh, wanted to encourage Muslims to search for the Names of Allah, learning about them, and observing the teachings learned from them. Further, they mentioned that the ‘Hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh, to which there was an attached list of ninety-nine claimed Good Names, was not a Sa’hi’h (correct) ‘Hadith. The eminent ‘Hadith scholar, Al-Albani, supported this statement by concluding that it is a weak ‘Hadith, when the list is attached to it, but it is a Sa’hi’h ‘Hadith without it. [20]

There are four apparent pieces of evidence, which explain the weakness in the authentication of the ‘Hadith attributed to Companion Abu Hurayrah, mAbpwh. The first is that there is inconsistency in the narration of the two versions of the ‘Hadith, which are different from each other in changing some names and in the alternatives given to the changed ones.

Al-Qurtubi followed Al-Ghazali in mentioning opinions of the ‘Hadith scholars preceding them about the likelihood that the claimed list was gathered by the narrator of the ‘Hadith, not the saying of the Prophet, pbbuh. In addition, the authors of the two Sa’hi’h Sunna books, Al-Bukhari and Muslim, did not include the list of names with the Abu Hurayra ‘Hadith. Ibn Taymiya added his explanatory opinion that “the ninety-nine names were not mentioned in a Sa’hi’h (correct, authenticated) ‘Hadith, attributed to the Prophet, pbbuh. The most commonly known among people is the ‘Hadith recorded by Al-Tirmidthi, as narrated by Al-Waleed Bin Muslim, who narrated it from Shu’ayb, who narrated it from Abu ‘Hamza. The ‘Hadith keepers (scholars) say that this addition (the list of names) is what Al-Waleed Bin Muslim gathered from his teachers (‘Hadith scholars). The other version of the ‘Hadith, which was recorded by Ibn Maja is weaker than this one” (which was recorded by Al-Tirmidthi).

The second piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the ‘Hadith, is that there are Good Names of Allah, which are mentioned in the Holy Quran but not included in the claimed list. Examples of such names are Al-Mawla (the Protector), Al-Naseer (the Supporter), Al-Ghalib (the Predominant), Al-Qareeb (the Nearby), Al-Rab, Al-Nassir (the Strong Supporter), Shadeed Al-‘iqab (the Severe in Penalty), Qabil Al-twab (the Acceptant of Repentance), Ghafir Al-Dthanb (the Forgiver of Sin), and Mukhrij Al-Mayyit mina Al-‘Hayy (Bringer of the Dead from the Living).

The third piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the ‘Hadith, is that the claimed list of names attached to it contains 25 of names, which are not mentioned literally in the Holy Quran. These are Al-Qabidh (the Gripper), Al-Basit (the Even-handed), Al-Khafidh (the Bringer of Some People Down), Al-Rafi’ (the Raiser of Some People Up), Al-Mu’iz (the Bestower of Might), Al-Mudhil (the Humiliator), Al-‘Hakam (the Judge), Al-‘Adl (the Just), Al-Jaleel (the Majestic), Al-Ba’ith (the Resurrector), Al-Mubdi (the Beginner), Al-Mu’eed (the Repeater of His Creation), Al-Mumeet (the One Who causes people to die), Al-Wajid (the Finder), Al-Majid (the Glorious), Al-Muqaddim (the One Who causes things to happen early), Al-Mu-akhir (the One Who causes things to be delayed), Al-Waali (the Overseeing Ruler), Al-Muqsit (the One Who treats people fairly), Al-Mughni (the One Who enables some people to become rich), Al-Mani’ (the One Who can deny something to somebody), Al-Dhaar (the One Who can cause harm to somebody), Al-Naafi’ (the One Who can cause benefit to somebody), Al-Rasheed (the Good Guide), and Al-Saboor (the Patient).

The fourth piece of evidence, which explains the weakness of the ‘Hadith, is that including a list of Names in the ‘Hadith contradicts with the advice of the Prophet, pbbuh, to Muslims, in the same ‘Hadith, to account for (search for, list, study, and observe) ninety-nine of them, as he would have already provided such names. [21]

Search Criteria for the Good Names of Allah

Allah, praise to Him, told to us that He has Good Names, mentioned in many verses of the Holy Quran, and He advised us to call on Him with such Names (Al-A’araf, 7: 180; Al-Isra, 17: 110; Ta-Ha, 20: 8). He also listed eighteen of them directly in verses 59: 22-24, as follows:

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٢٢﴾‏ هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿٢٣﴾‏ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٢٤﴾‏ (الْحَشْرُ ، 59: 22-24).

He is Allah, there is no other god than He, Knower of the Unknown and the Known. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. (22) He is Allah, there is no other god than He, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Peace, the Believer in His Godhood, the Predominant, the Rare in Might, the Compeller, the Superior. Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him. (23) He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the Good Names. Whatever is in the heavens and the Earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise. (24) (Al-‘Hashr, 59: 22-24).

The Names which Allah, praise to Him, willed to mention to us in His Holy Book, are the ones which we can understand and comprehend. However, He did not mention His other Names, because we may not be able to understand them. In particular, this applies to His Names which may describe His knowledge, His planning, and His will in other parts of His vast dominion, which includes the seven heavens, the seven earth-like planets, the Chair, and the Throne, as well as whoever inhabits them. In addition, His knowledge is absolute, about what was, what is, and what will be, while the knowledge of His creations is limited in quantity, quality, time, place, and condition.

It follows that we should keep His Names as mentioned in the Holy Quran and the Sa’hi’h ‘Hadiths. We should not make any changes to them, in observance to the command of Allah in verse 7: 180, mentioned above, to avoid what the polytheists did centuries after Ibrahim and Isma’il, peace be upon them. They called their idols Al-Lat, Al-‘Uzza, and Manat, which are deviated changes from His true Names of Allah, Al-‘Azeez, and Al-Mannan.

Some researchers who wrote about this subject did not pay attention to this command of Allah, as they would be focused on accounting for the largest number of His Names in the Holy Quran and the Sunna. An example of these researchers was Ibn Al-Wazeer (died in 822 Hijriya, 1419 AD), may Allah reward him for his good-intentioned work on the subject. He compiled a list of 155 names, which he claimed to include clearly and literally mentioned names of Allah in the Holy Quran, except one. This was “Al-A’az” (the Rarest in Might), which he deducted from verse 8 of Surat Al-Munafiqoon (Chapter 63) of the Holy Quran. The truth is that his list includes 21 names which have not been mentioned clearly and literally as texts in the Holy Quran.[22]

Other researchers who wrote about the subject had difficulty in classifying the Names of Allah, as adjectives or Names. The difficulty is due to the fact that these are traits of Allah, which classifies them as adjectives, according to the Arabic grammatical rules. So, such researchers would wonder, why would Allah, praise to Him, refer to them as His Names when these are His traits, which are grammatically known as adjectives?

It is amazing that these researchers missed noticing that the Holy Quran descended in the Arabic language, known to Arabs at the time of revelation, including their various tribal dialects. However, the science of Arabic grammar started after the death of the Prophet, pbbuh, in response to the necessity of teaching Arabic to new Muslims everywhere, to be able to understand the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Messenger.

So, it was the Arab grammarians who divided speech into nouns, verbs, and prepositions. Then, they divided nouns into common names, adjectival names, and verbal names. Their work started with Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du-ali, and Al-Khalil Bin A’hmed, climaxed with Sibawayh, Al-Mazini, and Ibn Al-Sakeet, and was refined by other grammarians after them, until the sixth Hijri Century. [23]

Thus, when Allah, praise to Him, referred to His traits as His Names, instead of describing them as His adjectival names, that was in harmony with how Arabs knew and understood their language, at the time of revelation. This means that the Holy Quran and the ‘Hadith were two original sources of knowledge about the Arabic language, which preceded the science of Arabic grammar. Consequently, the work of Arab grammarians should have been dominated by these two sources, not the other way around, including the grammatical rules, which were reached to teach Arabic to Muslims everywhere.

It follows that even the Name “Allah” is an adjectival name. It means an “Ilah“ (God). When it is preceded by the definite article (Al), it becomes “Al-Ilah” (The God), then a contracted form of the word is produced, which is “Allah. However, Allah, praise to Him, has distinguished this Name, by referring to Himself with it, using the pronoun “Ana” (I),” saying “Ana Allah” (I’m Allah), in verses 20: 14, 27: 9, and 28: 30.

He also distinguished four other Names, by referring to Himself with them, using the pronoun “Ana” (I), saying that He is an “Ilah” (God), in verse 16: 2, “Al-Ghafoor (the Forgiving), Al-Ra’heem” (the Merciful), in verse 15: 49, and “Rab” (Lord), in verses 20: 12, 21: 92, and 23: 52.  [24]

Arab grammarians have agreed that a word can be understood by two factors. The first is identified in relation to how it is pronounced, which leads to the classification of words to nouns, verbs, and prepositions. The second factor is described in relation to the meaning of a word, which is realized in the mind. Then, the meaning determines how the word is written and pronounced. However, there were several disagreements among them, such as the disagreement about the right root of derivation. While the Basra scholars argued that the noun is the right root of derivation, the Kufa scholars argued that the verb is the right root from which nouns are derived.  [25]

Further, they divided the three branches of the pronunciation factor into other sub-branches. Thus, they considered adjectives as a branch of nouns, mentioning that an adjective maybe a single word, or a verbal sentence, or a noun sentence (without a verb), or a phrase. 

They added that it is possible to produce a group of words from one original linguistic source. For example, from the verb root (infinitive) “dharaba” (to beat), we can produce the subject, or the verbal noun “dharib” (beater), and another form of the subject, which amplifies its characteristic, such as “midhrab” (known as a beater, or a frequent beater).

In addition, they devised six tone scales, from which various verbal noun amplifying forms can be produced from the same root verb. So, from the root verb “fa’ala” (to do), they devised the tone scales of fa’il, fa’eel, fa’ool, fa’al, and mif’al.  

Consequently, the Good Names of Allah are adjectival names or verbal names, whether expressed as one word or more. These Names can also be expressed as matching the most commonly expressed tone scale, fa’il, such as Malik, Qahir, Ghafir, and Shakir. These can also be expressed as matching the amplifying characteristic of the original verbal name, such as Ra’heem of Ra’hman; Maleek of Malik; Khallaq of Khaliq; Qah-har of Qahir; ‘Allam and ‘Aleem of ‘Alim; Ghafoor of Ghafir; and Shakoor of Shakir (See the list below, for the meanings of these Names).

Al-Sha’rawi called for the importance of observing the Arabic spelling of the Good Names of Allah, strictly as mentioned in the Holy Quran, whether these are adjectival names or verbal names. He emphasized that there should be no deduction of new names for Allah, praise to Him, from His mentioned actions, such as “Al-Mubtaly” (the Tester) and “Al-Maakir” (the Planner against disbelievers), out of the two verbs “ibtala” (to test) and “makara” (planned against). He added that these adjectival names are related actions of Allah during this life, but there will be no testing or planning in the hereafter. This means that the Good Names of Allah should have the characteristic of applying to both this life and the hereafter, as His traits, praise to Him, are eternal and everlasting. Further, he argued against choosing one word to be a Name of Allah from a compound name or a phrase mentioned in the Holy Quran. Examples of such changed Names of Allah are Al-Shadeed (the Severe), Al-Qabil (the Acceptant), and Al-Ghafir (the Forgiver), which are reductions from Shadeed Al-‘Iqab (Severe in Penalty), Qabil Al-Tawb (Acceptant of Repentance), and Ghafir Al-Dthanb (Forgiver of Sin). In other words, the compound or phrasal Names of Allah should stay as mentioned in the Holy Quran, not to be changed or reduced to one word.

Thus, the Good Names of Allah, which have been accounted for in this book, have been mentioned literally in the Holy Quran as direct texts, and have been written in the longer list of 151 Names as they are in the Book of Allah, without any changes. The list does not contain other names, which may be attributed to Allah, praise to Him, such as verbal names, unique qualities denied to others, and deducted traits. Examples of these three categories of names are presented at the end of the longer list.

The shorter list of 99 Good Names of Allah was produced from the longer list by the selection of one Name of a group of Names which have the same root verb. For example, Al-Ghafoor (the Perpetual Forgiving) was selected to represent the other six names, which are derivatives of the same root verb “ghafara” (to forgive).

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Allah,

His Good Names,

Who Is He?

What Does He Want for Humans?

As He Described Himself in the Holy Quran

 

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Chapter 4

 

The Longer List of the Good Names of Allah

 

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أعُوذُ باللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

I seek refuge with Allah from the stoned Shaytan

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

 

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Introduction

The following is a list of the Good Names of Allah, which includes 151 Names, representing His traits and capabilities this author has identified in the Holy Quran. However, there is no claim by this author that this is an exhaustive list. Other researchers are encouraged to continue the task of finding more of God's Names in the Holy Quran and their meanings, as their predecessors did before them.

In this list, each Name was documented by providing some of the verses it was mentioned in. Then, an explanation of the Name meaning was given on the basis of its meaning in the verse context. This was followed by explanations provided by the three renowned interpreters. Finally, explanations were also provided from the formerly referred to books, which explain the Good Names of Allah and His Attributes.

It is noteworthy that knowledge about the Good Names of Allah can be applied to our everyday life. One way is calling on Allah by them, another way is being guided in our behaviors by the meanings of each Name and a third way is including them in the names given to Muslim boys.

The word ('abd) is used as a prefix with one of the Good Names of Allah. It means "worshipper," as explained in Chapter 7. "Worshippers By Choice Or Forced Slaves? Thus, "Abdullah" means "Worshipper of Allah," and "Abdul Ra'hman" means "Worshipper of The Beneficent" and so on. However, nobody should be named with any Good Name of Allah, with the definite article (Al), or without it, as His Names represent His unique traits, which are not found in any other being. [26]

1. Allah: Allah (The God) اللهُ

"Allah" is the adjectival name which God, the Great Creator, has chosen for Himself. All of His other Good Names are also adjectival names. Linguistically, the Name “Allah” is composed of two syllables. The first is the definite article “Al” (the) and the second is “ilah” (God). Thus, it is Al-Ilah (the God), but it is contracted, by deleting the letter i from ilah, to become “Allah” (the God). This Name was also known to the other Messengers of Allah, who came before His last Messenger, Mu’hammed, peace and blessings be upon them all.

Taking the side of the Kufa grammarians, who argued that nouns are derived from verbs, not the other way around, this Name is derived from the verb “aliha,” which means to take a deity as a god to worship him. It is also derived from the verb “ta-allaha,” which means (for a deity) to declare himself as a god, to be worshipped by his creations.

This Greatest Good Name of God was mentioned, in various forms in the Holy Quran, 2,669 times. The Name of “Allah,” alone was mentioned 2,247 times in the verses and 113 times in the Basmalas, at the beginning of the Suras, with the exception of Al-Tawba, which has no Basmala. It was also mentioned 309 times in other forms, as Allahumma: O Allah (5 times), Lillah: To Allah (143 times), Tallah: By Allah (9), Fallah: And Allah (6), Billah: By Allah (139), Falillah: And to Allah (6), and Abillah: Of Allah (1). [27]  

Here are three verses, which mention the Name of "Allah" (1: 1), “Allahumma” (3: 26), and Lillah (57: 1), as examples:

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ (الْفَاتِحَةُ ، 1: 1). 

 

قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ الْمُلْكِ (آلِ عِمْرَانَ ، 3: 26).

 

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (الْحَدِيدُ ، 57: 1). 

 

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Fati’ha, 1: 1).

 

Say, "O Allah, Owner of Sovereignty” (Al-‘Imran, 3: 26).

Whatever is in the heavens and Earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-'Hadeed, 57: 1).

The Great Creator has described Himself, for us, in the Holy Quran, as “Allah” (the God), praise to Him. This means that He is the only deity, the One Who brought the universe, including who and what therein, into existence. It follows that His creations are obligated to worship Him. For humans, they should worship Him by prayers (Ta-Ha, 20: 14), as He is Exalted in Might, and Wise (Al-Naml, 27: 9). He is also the Lord of the Worlds (Al-Qasas, 28: 30), Who cares for, protects, and provides for His creations in all worlds. He is worthy of worship by His creations, as an expression of their gratitude for His countless favors, which He bestows on them. Examples of such favors include life, blessing, and mercy, during their lower life, and the everlasting life in His Paradise for the righteous believers, of the humans, jinn, and angels in the hereafter, as He mentions in His Holy Book:

إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي (طَهَ ، 20: 14).

يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّهُ أَنَا اللَّـهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (النَّمْلُ ، 27: 9).

يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (الْقَصَصُ ، 28: 30).

Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity (God) except Me. So, worship Me, and establish prayer for My remembrance (Ta-Ha, 20: 14).

O Moosa (Moses), indeed it is I, Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise (Al-Naml, 27: 9).

O Moses, indeed, I am Allah, Lord of the worlds (Al-Qasas, 28: 30).

Moreover, our Lord, Allah, praise to Him, mentioned to us that He created the jinn and humans to worship Him, though He is no need for their worship, as He is rich (free of need), while they need Him (Al-Dthariyat, 51: 57; Fatir, 35: 15; Al-‘Haj, 22: 37). Rather, He decreed their worship of Him for its benefits for them, as individuals, groups, and societies (Al-Baqara, 2: 184, 271-272; Al-Isra, 17: 7; Al-‘Haj, 22: 77; Al-Jumu’a, 62: 9).

As a show of love and kindness for His creations, of the jinn and humans, Allah, praise to Him, sent them His Messengers, to guide them in leading a happy life here, and in the hereafter. This should be clear to us, if we think about the consequences of doing good deeds and performing the mandated five ways of worship in Islam (the two proclamations of faith, prayer, zakat (charity), fasting the month of Ramadhan, and the pilgrimage by whoever is capable to make it). These acts of worship lead to tremendous benefits for individuals, families, communities, and societies, as well as for the whole planet of the Earth, which has been given to us, to be God’s caliphs on it, as was discussed in Chapter 8 of this Author’s book, “Islam: A Scientific View of God’s Message to Humanity,” titled: “The Relationship Between the Spiritual and the Physical Aspects of Islamic Teachings.”

Al-Ghazali mentioned that this is the Greatest among all Names of Allah. Al-Qurtubi agreed but opined that the Greatest Name of Allah could be “Al-‘Hayyu” (the Eternally Living). He said that “Allah” has kept this Name exclusively to Himself and nobody else has been named as such. He added that all of the other Good Names of Allah are attributes (adjectival names). Ibn Katheer agreed with them that “Allah” is the Greatest of the Good Names but opined that it may be “Al-Qayyoom” (the Sustainer of the Universe). Al-Sha’rawi defined it as the Name which contains all of the divine attributes.

How can Muslims benefit from the knowledge about the Good Names of Allah?

Applying knowledge about this Greatest Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, saying: “Allahumma, or Ya Allah, or Ilahi (O You the God, or O the God, or My God), as He commanded us to do, saying: “And to Allah belong the Good Names. So, call upon (invoke) Him by them“ (Al-A’araf, 7: 180). Then, believers can ask their Lord for good things, or for assistance to themselves, their families, relatives, and whoever they love, as long as what they ask for is for good, and in obedience to their Creator.

Nobody should be named with this Greatest Good Name of Allah, as it represents His uniqueness of being the only deity, Who is worthy of worship, as He is the Creator of everything in existence, the Sustainer of the universe, the Provider for and the Caretaker of His creations. However, a boy can be named as “’Abdullah” (worshipper of Allah), as this Name represents a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Believers can benefit from the meanings of this Greatest Good Name of Allah by acknowledging that He, praise to Him, is their God and Creator. It follows that they worship Him, observe His commands, and avoid His prohibitions, which leads them to happiness here, in this lower life, and everlasting happiness in the hereafter.

2. Ilah: God      إِلَـٰهٌ

"Ilah" (God) is an adjectival name, derived from the verb “aliha,” which means to take a deity as a god to worship him. It is also derived from the verb “ta-allaha,” which means (for a deity) to declare himself as a god, to be worshipped by his creations.

It follows that whenever people believe in their God, they depend on Him, praise Him at good times, and invoke Him for assistance at difficult times. Thus doing, they acknowledge their obligation to worship Him and observe His command, in which He said:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ (الأنْبِيَاءُ ، 21: 25).

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, "There is no God (Ilah) except Me. So, worship Me" (Al-Anbiya, 21: 25).

As a Good Name of Allah, “Ilah” (God) came in the Holy Quran with the reference to Him as the Creator (Al-Muminoon, 23: 91), the Lord (Al-Saffat, 37: 4-5), the Provider (Al-Naml, 27: 64), and the Giver of life on the Earth, through the alteration of day and night on it (Al-Qasas, 28: 71-72). He is One God (Al-Saffat, 37: 4), and He is “the Lord of the Sunrise and the Sunset, there is no deity except Him“ (Al-Muzzammil, 73: 9).

The word “Ilah” (God) was mentioned 97 times, in the Holy Quran, in the singular form. In 17 times, it is mentioned neutrally, as a reference to a god, or a false god. It was also mentioned in 80 times, as a direct reference to Allah, or in relation to Him, as follows: [28]

 وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَٰهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَٰهٌ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ (الزُّخْرُفُ ، 43: 84).

And it is Allah who is God (Ilah) in the heaven, and on the Earth (He is) God (Ilah). And He is the Wise, the Knowing (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 84).

Moreover, it was mentioned 11 times as “Ilahukum” (your God, for plural addressees), once as “Ilahuna” (our God), and once as “Ilahaka” (your God, for a singular addressee), as follows:

قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ (الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 133).

وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَّا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ (الْبَقَرَةُ ، 2: 163).

وَإِلَٰهُنَا وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ (الْعَنْكَبُوتُ ، 29: 46).

(Children of Ya’coop) said, "We will worship your God (Ilahaka) and the God (Ilah) of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), and Isma’il (Ishmael), and Is’haq (Isaac) - One God (Ilah). And we are Muslims (in submission) to Him" (Al-Baqara, 2: 133).

And your God (Ilahukum) is One God (Ilah). There is no (other) God (Ilah) except Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful (Al-Baqara, 2: 163).

And our God (Ilahuna) and your God (Ilahukum) is One; and we are Muslims (in submission) to Him (Al-‘Ankaboot, 29: 46).

Applying knowledge about this Good Name of Allah is by calling upon Him, with it, saying: “Ya Ilahi” (O, My God), and asking Him to extend His blessings, mercy, and favors to the caller, his/her family, relatives, loved ones, and believers, in this life and the hereafter.

Nobody should be named with this Good Name of Allah, as it represents His uniqueness of being the only deity, Who is worthy of worship, as He is the Creator of everything in existence, the Sustainer of the universe, the Provider for and the Caretaker of His creations. However, a boy can be named “’Abdul Ilah” (worshipper of the God), as this Name represents a recognition of his worship to his Creator.

Believers can benefit from the meanings of this Good Name of Allah, by acknowledging that He, praise to Him, is their God and Creator. As such, they are obligated to worship Him, observe His commands, and avoid His prohibitions, which leads them to happiness here, in this lower life, and everlasting happiness in the hereafter.

3. Ilah Al-Nas (pronounced as illahunnas): God of the People      إِلَـٰهُ النَاسِ

"Ilah Al-Nas" (God of the People) is an adjectival compound name, composed of two words. The first word “ilah” (God) is an adjectival name, derived from the verb “aliha,” which means to take a deity as a god to worship him. It is also derived from the verb “ta-allaha,” which means (for a deity) to declare himself as a god, to be worshipped by his creations. It follows that whenever people believe in their God, they depend on Him, praise Him at good times, and invoke Him for assistance at difficult times.

The second word, “Al-Nas” (the people) is a noun in the plural form. Its singular form, “insan” (a human being), is derived from the verb “nasiya,” which means “to forget knowledge of something.” This meaning is present in many verses in the Holy Quran, as in the following examples:

وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ آدَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْمًا (طَهَ ، 20: 115).

فَلَمَّا بَلَغَا مَجْمَعَ بَيْنِهِمَا نَسِيَا حُوتَهُمَا فَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ سَرَبًا (الْكَهْفُ ، 18: 61).

And We covenanted with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found in him no resolve (Ta-Ha, 20: 115).

But when they reached the junction between them (the two seas), they forgot their fish, and it took its course into the sea, slipping away (Al-Kahf, 18: 61).

The word, “Al-Nas” (the people) is also derived from the verb “anisa,” which means “to love the company of others, get used to it, and be assured of it. One derivatives of this verb came in the plural present tense, “tastanisoo,” which means to “get assured of company of others” (Al-Noor, 24: 27). Another derivative came in the plural adjectival noun form, “mustaniseen,” which means “enjoying the company of others” (Al-A’hzab, 33: 53). In both examples, the human being is described as having love and joy for the company of other people and for the interaction with them.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰ تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ (النُّورُ ، 24: 27).

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتَ النَّبِيِّ إِلَّا أَن يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامٍ غَيْرَ نَاظِرِينَ إِنَاهُ وَلَٰكِنْ إِذَا دُعِيتُمْ فَادْخُلُوا فَإِذَا طَعِمْتُمْ فَانتَشِرُوا وَلَا مُسْتَأْنِسِينَ لِحَدِيثٍ (الأحْزَابُ ، 33: 53).

O you who have believed, do not enter houses other than your own houses, until you are assured (of their welcome), and (until) you greet their inhabitants. That is better for you. So, (this command is for you that), you may be reminded (Al-Noor, 24: 27).

O you who have believed, do not enter the houses of the Prophet, except when you are permitted for a meal, without awaiting its readiness. But when you are invited, then enter; and when you have eaten, disperse without enjoying (the stay for) a conversation (Al-A’hzab, 33: 53).

There is a third meaning for the word “Al-Nas” (the people) in the Holy Quran. It refers to both humans and jinn, as the two intelligent categories of creatures, who are obligated to worship Allah, their Creator (Al-Nas, 114: 5-6). Thus, as a Good Name of Allah, “Ilah Al-Nass” (God of the People), which was mentioned once in the Holy Quran, means that Allah, praise to Him, is the only God, Who is worshipped by His intelligent creations. These are angels in the heavens, humans on the Earth (Al-Zukhruf, 43: 84), and jinn in between the heavens and the Earth (Al-Shu’ara, 26; 23-24).

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ ﴿١﴾‏ مَلِكِ النَّاسِ ﴿٢﴾إِلَٰهِ النَّاسِ ﴿٣﴾‏ مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ ﴿٤﴾‏ الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ ﴿٥﴾‏ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ ﴿٦﴾‏ (النَّاسُ ، 114: 1-6).

وَهُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ إِلَٰهٌ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَٰهٌ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْعَلِيمُ (الزُّخْرُفُ ، 43: 84).

قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ